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In A Modest Proposal, Swift vents his mounting aggravation at the ineptitude of Irelands politicians, the hypocrisy of the wealthy, the tyranny of the English, and the squalor and degradation in which he sees so many Irish people living. While A Modest Proposal bemoans the bleak situation of an Ireland almost totally subject to Englands exploitation, it also expresses Swifts utter disgust at the Irish peoples seeming inability to mobilize on their own behalf. Without excusing any party, the essay shows that not only the English but also the Irish themselves--and not only the Irish politicians but also the masses--are responsible for the nations lamentable state. His compassion for the misery of the Irish people is a severe one, and he includes a critique of their incompetence in dealing with their own problems.


Political pamphleteering was a fashionable pastime in Swifts day, which saw vast numbers of tracts and essays advancing political opinions and proposing remedies for Irelands economic and social ills. Swifts tract parodies the style and method of these, and the grim irony of his own solution reveals his personal despair at the failure of all this paper journalism to achieve any actual progress. His piece protests the utter inefficacy of Irish political leadership, and it also attacks the orientation of so many contemporary reformers toward economic utilitarianism. While Swift himself was an astute economic thinker, he often expressed contempt for the application of supposedly scientific management ideas to humanitarian concerns.


The main rhetorical challenge of this bitingly ironic essay is capturing the attention of an audience whose indifference has been well tested. Swift makes his point negatively, stringing together an appalling set of morally untenable positions in order to cast blame and aspersions far and wide. The essay progresses through a series of surprises that first shocks the reader and then causes her to think critically not only about policies, but also about motivations and values.


Paragraphs 1-7





Summary


The author invokes the melancholly and all-too-common sight of women and children begging on the streets of Ireland. These mothers, unable to work for their livelihood, are forced to employ all their Time panhandling for food. The children, also for want of work, grow up to be thieves, or else emigrate to fight for the Pretender (the son of James II, who lost the throne of England in the Glorious Revolution of 1688) or to seek their fortunes in the Americas. The author appeals to the general consensus that these beggared children are, in the present deplorable State of the Kingdom, a very great additional Grievance. He supposes that anyone who could devise a way to make these street children into productive members of society would be doing the nation a great service. The authors own Intention, he says, goes even further than providing for these children of Professed Beggars; his proposal includes in its scope all children of a certain Age whose parents, though they have not yet resorted to begging, are too poor to support them.


Having considered Irelands population problem for many years, the author has concluded that the arguments and schemes of others upon the subject are wholly inadequate. They have been, he says, grossly mistaken in their Computation. He offers some calculations of his own a newborn infant can be supported for its first year on breast-milk and two shillings, a sum that can easily be obtained by begging. It is after this relatively undemanding first year, therefore, that Swifts proposal will go into effect. I propose to provide for them in such a Manner, as, instead of being a Charge upon their Parents, or the Parish, or wanting Food and Raiment for the rest of their Lives; they shall, on the contrary, contribute to the Feeding, and partly to the Cloathing, of many Thousands. Another advantage of his proposal, Swift says, is that it will reduce the number of abortions and infanticides. He speculates that most women undertake these highly immoral practices more to avoid the Expence than the Shame of unwanted children.


The author fills out the background to his proposal with additional statistical data. In a national population of 1.5 million, there are probably 00,000 women of childbearing age. Out of these, 0,000 might be supposed to be financially able to maintain their own children. That leaves 170,000 breeders. Of these, perhaps 50,000 will miscarry or lose their children in the first year, leaving 10,000 children born of poor parents each year. The Question therefore is, How this Number shall be reared, and provided for? In the current state of the nation Swift asserts it to be impossible. They cannot be employed in a country that neither build[s] Houses,...nor cultivate[s] Land. Except for the exceptionally gifted, they will not be able to steal for a living until they are at least six years of age, although, I confess, they learn the Rudiments much earlier. A child under the age of twelve is no saleable Commodity, and even when they are old enough to be sold into servitude, children bring no very large price--certainly not enough to offset the costs involved in rearing them to that age.


Commentary


Swifts opening paragraph offers a starkly realistic, although compassionate, portrait of families of beggars in Ireland. The first sentence gives a fairly straightforward and un-ironic description, but by the second sentence the author begins to offer judgments and explanations about this rampant beggary the mothers are unable to work, and have been forced into their current poverty and disgrace. Swifts language here reverses the prevailing sentiment of his day, which held that if beggars were poor, it was their own fault. The reader is unsure at this point whether to take Swifts professed compassion for the beggars as earnest or ironic. The issue never becomes completely clear. In this passage, and in the tract as a whole, he tends not to choose sides; his stance is one of general exasperation with all parties in a complex problem. Swift is generous with his disdain, and his irony works both to censure the poor and to critique the society that enables their poverty. The remark about Irish Catholics who go to Spain to fight for the Pretender offers a good example of the complexity of Swifts judgments he is commenting on a woeful lack of national loyalty among the Irish, and at the same time critiquing a nation that drives its own citizens to mercenary activity. He makes a similar stab at national policies and priorities with the aside that takes for granted that poor Irish children will not find employment, since we neither build Houses,...nor cultivate Land.


The reader is inclined at first to identify with the proposer, in part because Swift has given no reason, at this point, not to. His compassion in the first paragraph, the matter-of-fact tone of the second, his seeming objectivity in weighing other proposals, and his moral outrage at the frequency of abortion and infanticide--these characteristics all speak out in his favor as a potential reformer. Yet the depersonalizing vocabulary with which he embarks on his computations is calculated to give us pause. He describes a newborn child as just drooped from its Dam and identifies women as Breeders. Against this language the word souls (which ought to make sense as a way of talking about hapless human beings) takes on a wry tone when applied to Irelands now strictly statistical population. This language offers an early indication of the way the authors proposal reduces human beings alternately to statistical entities, to economic commodities, and to animals.


It becomes clear fairly quickly that this will be an economic argument, although the proposal will have moral, religious, political, and nationalistic implications. Despite his own moral indignation, when the author suggests that most abortions are occasioned by financial rather than moral considerations, he assumes that peoples motivations are basically materialistic. This is not, of course, Swifts own assumption; he presents a shockingly extreme case of cold-blooded rationality in order to make his readers reexamine their own priorities. Swift parodies the style of the pseudo-scientific proposals for social engineering that were so popular in his day. His piece is partly an attack on the economic utilitarianism that drove so many of these proposals. Although Swift was himself an astute economist, here he draws attention to the incongruity between a ruthless (though impeccably systematic) logic and a complexly human social and political reality. Part of the effect will be to make the reader feel that the argument is bad, without knowing quite where to intervene--to pit moral judgment against other, more rigidly logical kinds of argumentation.


Paragraphs 8-1


(Read Section )


Summary


The author begins detailing his proposal, saying that he hopes it will not be liable to the least Objection. He offers the information, derived from an American he knows, that a one-year-old child is a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome Food; whether Stewed, Roasted, Baked, or Boiled. Based on this fact, he proposes that the 10,000 Irish children born in a year should be disposed of as follows 0,000 should be kept for breeding and continuance of the population, but only a fourth of these are to be males, in accordance with the practice common among breeders of livestock (one Male will be sufficient to serve four Females); the other 100,000 are to be fattened and then sold as a culinary delicacy. He proceeds to offer suggestions as to the sort of dishes that might be prepared from their meat.


After this quick outline, the author moves on to the specifics of the proposal. First, he discusses the price of the meat. Since a one-year-old baby weighs, on average, only twenty-eight pounds, the flesh will be relatively expensive. These children, therefore, will be marketed primarily to Irelands rich landlords, who, as Swift points out, have already devoured most of the Parents anyway. Second, he speculates that the new foodstuff will be in season year-round--with perhaps a particular surge in the springtime. The cost of nursing a Beggars Child to marketable age is shillings a year. The cost of the meat will be ten shillings, and the profits of the sale will be mutual the mother will make eight shillings, and the landlord who buys the child will not only have four Dishes of excellent nutritive Meat, but will also enjoy an increase in his own popularity among his tenants. In times of need, the skin could also be used for leather. The author does not doubt that there will be plenty of people in Dublin willing to conduct these transactions and to butcher the meat.


He then tells of a friends proposed Refinement on my Scheme, which was that, in light of the shortage of deer on the estates of Irelands wealthy Gentlemen, teenage boys and girls might be butchered as an alternative to venison--especially since so many of these young people are already starving and unable to find employment. Swift, however, resists this idea, protesting that their Flesh was generally tough and lean...and their Taste disagreeable. He also speculates that some scrupulous people might be apt to censure such a practice (although indeed very unjustly) as a little bordering upon Cruelty. The author follows this up with an anecdote about the natives of Formosa and their cannibalistic practices. He then acknowledges a general concern about the vast number of elderly, sick, and handicapped among the poor, who are no more able to find work than the children. Having been asked to consider how the country could be relieved of that burden, Swift declares himself unworried--these people are dying off fast enough anyway.


Commentary


The irony of Swifts piece turns on the assumption that his audience, regardless of their national or religious affiliations or their socioeconomic status, will all agree to the fact that eating children is morally reprehensible. The reader registers a shock at this point in the proposal and recognizes that a literal reading of Swifts pamphlet will not do. Swift is clearly not suggesting that the people of Ireland actually eat their children, and so the task becomes one of identifying his actual argument. This involves separating the persona of the proposer from Swift himself. The former is clearly a caricature; his values are deplorable, but despite his cold rationality and his self-righteousness, he is not morally indifferent. Rather, he seems to have a single, glaring blind spot regarding the reprehensible act of eating children, but he is perfectly ready to make judgments about the incidental moral benefits and consequences of his proposal. The proposer himself is not the main target of Swifts angry satire, though he becomes the vehicle for some biting parodies on methods of social thought.


The proposal draws attention to the self-degradation of the nation as a whole by illustrating it in shockingly literal ways. The idea of fattening up a starving population in order to feed the rich casts a grim judgment on the nature of social relations in Ireland. The language that likens people to livestock becomes even more prevalent in this part of the proposal. The breeding metaphor underscores the economic pragmatism that underlies the idea. It also works to frame a critique of the domestic values in Irish Catholic families, who regard marriage and family with so little sanctity that they effectively make breeding animals of themselves. Swift draws on the long-standing perception among the English and the Anglo-Irish ruling classes of the Irish as a barbaric people. Swift neither confirms nor negates this assumption altogether. He indicts the Irish Catholics for the extent to which they dehumanize themselves through their baseness and lack of self-respect. He also, however, admonishes those who would accuse the poor for their inhumane lack of compassion. And, he critiques the barbarism of a mode of social thought that takes economic profitability as its sole standard.


With the introduction of the idea of cannibalism, a number of associated insinuations come into play. Swift cultivates an analogy between eating people and other ways in which people, or a nation, can be devoured. The British oppression amounts to a kind of voracious consumption of all things Irish--humans devouring humans in a cannibalism of injustice and inhumanity. But Irelands complicity in its own oppression translates the guilt of cannibalism to a narrower national scale; this is not just humans being cruel to other humans, but a nation consuming itself and its own resources. Swifts aside about the fact that wealthy Irish landlords have already devoured most of the poor parents voices a protest against their exploitation of the peasants.


One of Swifts techniques is to let abstract ideas resonate in multiple ways. The word profit, for example, refers at various points to economics, morality, and personal indulgence. When Swift looks at who stands to profit from the sale of infant flesh, he includes not only the family that earns the eight shillings, but also the landowner who will earn a certain social status by serving such a delicacy, and the nation that will obtain relief from some of its most pressing problems. In this way, Swift keeps reminding his reader of the different value systems that bear on Irelands social and political problems.


Paragraphs 0-8


(Read Section )


Summary


I have too long digressed, says Swift, and so he continues to enumerate the advantages of his proposal. It will reduce the number of Papists (Catholics), who form the majority of the poor population and who tend to have large families. He identifies the Catholics as the enemies of the nation--or of its wealthy Anglo contingent--accusing Irish Catholics of subversive political activity, while contrasting them with the many Protestants who have left the country rather than be forced to pay Tithes against their Conscience.


The proposal also means that poor tenants, once their children become a valuable commodity, will be better able to pay off their debts to their landlords. The arrangement will be good for the national economy, turning what had been a liability into part of the national product--not to mention the added national benefit of a new dish. In addition, the parents of these now-marketable children will reap a profit beyond just the eight-shilling sale price, since they will be relieved of the expense of caring for the children after the first year. The new food will undoubtedly improve business in taverns. The proposal will have the moral benefits of encouraging marriage and increasing mothers love for their children. It will also likely spur a healthy competition among parents as to who can bring the fattest Child to the Market, as well as reducing domestic violence, at least during the time of pregnancy, for fear of a Miscarriage. An indirect consequence of eating childrens flesh will be an increase in exportation of beef, and well as a rising standard for other meats, which are in no way comparable in Taste, or Magnificence, to a well-grown fat yearling Child. Swift speculates that one fifth of the carcasses will be consumed in London, and the rest elsewhere in Ireland.


Commentary


The author identifies himself as a member of the Anglo-Irish ruling class, who were predominantly Anglican. His picture of embattled Anglicans forced to leave the country is an ironic one, however. Swift is denouncing the practice of absenteeism among Irish landlords, who often governed their estates from abroad, thus funneling all the fruits of Irish peasant labor out of the Irish economy and into the English coffers. The proposers allegiance is to the interests of the wealthy, and it is at the upper classes that Swift aims his sharpest barbs. Swifts contempt for the irresponsibility, greed, and moral indifference of the wealthy is matched only by his disgust at the utter failure of Irelands political leaders. Swift begins moving away from the faux-economics of child-breeding in order to hone in on the realities of Irelands economic crisis. Many of the arguments the proposer advances here have to do with the very real problem of building a viable Irish national economy. Swift reveals that his objection is not so much with the basic mercantilist idea that the people are the most valuable resources of a nation, but rather with Irelands failure to value that resource in any meaningful and nationally constructive way.


Swift also elaborates on his critique of domestic mores among the Irish poor. The fact that they need an economic inducement to marry, to love their children and spouses, and to refrain from domestic violence are obvious strikes against them--although probably against the bigotry of the proposer as well since, for Swift, there are multiple sides to every story.


Paragraphs -


(Read Section 4)


Summary


The author now anticipates an objection to his proposal--that it will too drastically reduce the national population. He admits this, reminding the reader that such a reduction was in fact one of the goals. The proposal, he emphasizes, is calculated specifically with respect to Ireland and its circumstances, and is not meant to be applicable to other kingdoms. He offers a catalogue of the various remedies others have suggested taxing absentee landowners, buying only domestically-manufactured goods, rejecting foreign luxury, reforming the morality of Irish women, instilling Parsimony, Prudence, and Temperance in the people, as well as a healthy patriotism, abandoning factionalism and internal strife, refusing to sell our Country and Consciences for nothing, encouraging landlords to treat their tenants justly, and enforcing honest practice among merchants. The author disdains these measures as naive and unrealistic. He tells of his own weariness after years of struggling with such impracticable ideas, and his final relief and excitement at hitting upon his current proposal, which hath something solid and real, of no Expence, and little Trouble, and which will not run the risk of angering England. It will have nothing to do with England, in fact, since the flesh of human infants is too delicate to withstand exportation. He hints that there might be a country that would be eager to eat up our whole Nation, even without preservatives.





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Aborting Fetuses


Nowadays, many young people use drugs because they are pressured by their friends. Others use drugs because they think it is fun and cool. Couples who use fertility drugs should have the option of aborting fetuses. Because pregnant mothers take risks while using drugs, couples that are addicted are not really capable of taking care of their babies and many of the babies suffer and have different effects.


First, pregnant mothers take risks while using drugs. Many mothers think it is easy to take any kind of medication while pregnant. What they don’t know is that they have to go through different doctors to take any kind of medication. Some mothers are not responsible for their babies and themselves. They take different kinds of drugs, such as, marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy, etc. One of my friends just had a baby, and she was dating a guy that was using drugs before her pregnancy. When she was having her baby, all of the check ups were good. They told her that it was a healthy baby. After two months, the little baby girl was born. The baby got sick, and they had to take her to the hospital because her lungs were not working. She stayed in the hospital for two weeks. The doctors told the mom that in the future the baby was going to have problems breathing because of the drugs that the father had been using before. Many couples think it is not important to take care of their babies but it is not true. They have to give their lives for them. That is why the mothers have to be really careful when using medication or any kind of drug that is assigned by the doctor.


Second, couples that are addicted are not really capable of taking care of their babies. Many couples just want to keep themselves happy, and they forget about their babies. In the streets one sees people walking asking for money they use the phrase, My friend, I haven’t eaten, can I have a quarter or some change?” Almost all of the people are not saying the truth. Many just want to have some change to waste in alcohol and drugs. Many of them are mothers that are addicted to drugs and alcohol. I come across a lady that was walking by my house she was about thirty years old she asked me for money and I asked her what she needed the money for. She was very honest and told me “I need to by some kind of drug to calm down the pain that I have because I am pregnant. She didn’t have a choice because the hospitals were too expensive and she could not afford it. I took her to the hospital and she thanked me. There are many ways women can get help from other people while pregnant. The only thing they have to do is ask.





Last, many of the babies suffer and have different effects. The parents are not concerned of the problems that they can cause the babies. If a parent takes drugs the babies can be deformed when they are born. In a TV show called Real TV, there are many cases of parents that have taken drugs while pregnant. Some of the babies become addicted to the drug that the mother is taking; the babies need the drugs after they are born. The babies might have a disability after they are born because of the parents, addiction to drug. It is better for many babies not to suffer in life. The mother must have the decision to whether to abort or not to abort their babies. Because the mother is going to have the regrets after her baby is born.


In conclusion, couples who use fertility drugs should have the option of aborting fetuses; the pregnant mother take risks while using drugs; couples that are addicted are not really capable of taking care of their babies; and many of the babies suffer and have different effects. This is a hard decision to make because it is a life in someone’s hands. Most of the times is better for the babies and their mother.





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Assignment One Normalising data


Normalisation is a bottom-up approach to database design that begins by examining the relationships between the attributes that in turn make up the database.


For this example of normalising data we are going to use data from AllRight Accounting which is a firm that stores data about their customers various policies with other companies.


The forms that we are extracting the data from are standard forms used by AlRight Accounting to receive the necessary information on their customers. Here the user fills in a form with details such as Personnel Details, Policy Details, and Company Details.





Aaron’s Accounting


Client Number CN 4 Policy Number PN 1


Full Name Karen Hatfield Policy Description Covers holder for full Dental treatment


Monthly Debt £50 Company Number CN 100


Policy Start 1- Sep - Company Name Dave’s Dental


Policy Expire 1- Sep - 00


Source of data Standard AllRight Accounting customer information form


Before we move to First Normal Form (1NF) we show how the data looks from the outset. This is called Unnormalised form (UNF).


Unnormalised Form (UNF) A table containing one or more repeating groups


customerPolicy (cliebtNo, cName, policyNo, pDesc, pStart, pExpire, mDebt, companyNo, cName)


Table Format ClientRental


clientNo cName policyNo pDesc pStart pExpire mDebt companyNo cName


CN4 Karen Hatfield PN1PN15 Covers holder for full dental treatmentCovers holder for full home insurance 1 Sep 1 Aug 1 Sep 001 Aug 00 £50£60 CN100CN110 Dave’s DentalHomes Cover


CN44 Simon Hauss PN1PN0PN15 Covers holder for full dental treatmentCovers holder for full car insuranceCovers holder for full home insurance 1Oct 01 Dec 011Jan 01 1Oct 0 Dec 01Jan 0 £50£75£60 CN100CN115CN110 Dave’s DentalCareful CarsHomes Cover


First Normal Form (1NF) A relation in which the intersection of each row and column contains one and only one value.


The first step of normalising the data here is to remove any repeating groups, by looking at the table in the Unnormalised form we can see that the repeating data is as follows…


Repeating Group = (policyNo, pDesc, pStart, pExpire, debt, companyNo, cName)





So to put the data in first normal form we remove the repeating group (Policy Details) by placing the repeating data along with a copy of the original key attribute (clientNo) in a separate relation. We then need to identify a primary key for the new relation (policyNo).


Client (clientNo, cName)


PolicyDetailsCompany (clientNo, policyNo, pDesc, pStart, pExpire, debt, companyNo, cName)


Table Format Client & PolicyDetailsCompany


Client


clientNo cName


CN4CN44 Karen HatfieldSimon Hauss


PolicyDetailsCompany


clientNo policyNo pDesc pStart pExpire debt companyNo cName


CN4CN4 PN1PN15 Covers holder for full dental treatmentCovers holder for full home insurance 1 Sep 1Aug 1 Sep 001 Aug 00 £50£60 CN100CN110 Dave’s DentalHomes Cover


CN44CN44CN44 PN1PN0PN15 Covers holder for full dental treatmentCovers holder for full car insuranceCovers holder for full home insurance 1Oct 01 Dec 011Jan 01 1Oct 0 Dec 01Jan 0 £50£75£60 CN100CN115CN110 Dave’s DentalCareful CarsHomes Cover


Second Normal Form (ND) A relation that is in first normal form and every non-primary-key attribute is fully functionally dependant on the primary key


This normal form applies to relations with composite keys (relations with a primary key composed of two or more attributes). If the relation had only a single attribute primary key it would already be in second normal form. To reach NF on our data we need to create new relations so that the non-primary key attributes are removed along with a copy of the part of the primary key that they are full functionally dependant.


Client (clientNo, cName)


Policy (clientNo, policyNo, pStart, pExpire,)


DetailsCompany (policyNo, pDesc, debt, companyNo, cName)


Table Format Client, Policy & DetailsCompany


Client


clientNo cName


CN4CN44 Karen HatfieldSimon Hauss


Policy


clientNo policyNo pStart pExpire


CN4CN4 PN1PN15 1 Sep 1Aug 1 Sep 001 Aug 00


CN44CN44CN44 PN1PN0PN15 1Oct 01 Dec 011Jan 01 1Oct 0 Dec 01Jan 0


DetailsCompany


policyNo pDesc debt companyNo cName


PN1PN15PN0 Covers holder for full dental treatmentCovers holder for full home insuranceCovers holder for full home insurance £50£60£75 CN100CN110CN115 Dave’s DentalHomes CoverCareful Cars


Third Normal Form (NF) A relation that is in first and second normal form, and in which no non-primary key attribute is transitively dependent on the primary key


The normalisation from NF to NF involves the removal of any transitive dependencies. If a transitive dependency exists we should remove the transitive dependent attribute from the relation by placing the attribute in a new relation along with a copy of the determinant. In our data all the non-primary key attributes in DetailsCompany are functionally dependent on the primary key, with the exception of cName, as this is also dependent on companyNo. This is an example of a transitive dependency as the attribute cName is dependent on one or more non-primary key attributes i.e. companyNo.


So to remove this transitive dependency we create two new relations called Details and Company…


Client (clientNo, cName)


Policy (clientNo, policyNo, pStart, pExpire)


Details (policyNo, pDesc, debt, companyNo)


Company (companyNo, cName)


Table Format Client, Policy, Details & Company


Client Company


companyNo cName


CN100CN110CN115 Dave’s DentalHomes CoverCareful Cars


clientNo cName


CN4CN44 Karen HatfieldSimon Hauss


Policy


clientNo policyNo pStart pExpire


CN4CN4 PN1PN15 1 Sep 1Aug 1 Sep 001 Aug 00


CN44CN44CN44 PN1PN0PN15 1Oct 01 Dec 011Jan 01 1Oct 0 Dec 01Jan 0


Details


policyNo pDesc debt companyNo


PN1PN15PN0 Covers holder for full dental treatmentCovers holder for full home insuranceCovers holder for full home insurance £50£60£75 CN100CN110CN115





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Columbine High School Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold


This paper will explore the events that lead up to the fatal shootings, committed by high school students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, at Columbine High School on April 0, 1. To find out why these boys committed these horrific crimes, we need to examine not only the events of April 0, 1, we also need to examine the events which lead up to this fatal day.


In this research essay I will examine the many influences and environmental forces that may have contributed to the planning and execution of this mass murder and suicide. We will look at where and why Eric and Dylan’s friendship began. We will also examine the various theories reported by the media as to why Eric and Dylan, individually, would kill 1 people and wound over twenty others. Individuals have many different theories as to why the boys committed this crime Was it revenge, suicide, fame, anger, or maybe depression?


Also, I would like to examine these events from the killers’ point of view instead of the victims. It seems to me that everyone wants to believe the boys were just sick and twisted. I believe differently. I will be arguing in this essay that Eric and Dylan were not just hateful people from the beginning. The torment and bullying that these teenagers went through is more than most people could handle and, in the end, Eric and Dylan got what they wanted, they made a statement.





Eric Harris was born in Kansas. According to an article called Fatal Friendship, Eric Harris’ father was in the military and Eric’s family was constantly moving until his father retired and moved them to Littleton, Colorado. Eric was always looked at as cute and smart. Eric’s parents always made him and his brother work hard in school and do all of their homework.


Dylan Klebold seemed to have a wonderful childhood. All the kids loved his parents, Tom and Sue. All in all, Dylan seemed to grow up much more normally than Eric, which is probably why everyone labels Dylan as only a follower of Eric.


Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold were like soul mates, each was the other’s backbone during the most deadly school shooting in history. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold met sometime in junior high school, exactly when is unknown. In junior high school, Dylan was a little awkward but loved sports. Dylan was the bright kid who impressed everyone with his intelligence. Eric was sort of a dork who always tried to fit in. The one thing for sure that Dylan and Eric both had in common during their junior high schools years was that they both enjoyed the game of baseball. This interest in baseball may have been the catalyst for their friendship.


In a newly remodeled high school, Eric and Dylan started to hang out with another fellow by the name of Brookes Brown. The three buddies began isolating themselves from others and indulging in video games for hours on end. They made fun of their peers who weren’t as clever as they were. The boys were “lazy and uninterested” and didn’t care about school activities and would rather play games such as Doom. Their freshman year in high school seemed to be enjoyable to them, at least from a distance. A classmate told a Columbine newspaper, “That’s back when they were just like everybody else, they dressed normal, I’d even say preppie.” During this year, Dylan joined theater and had a lot more friends than Eric did. No one would have suspected that Dylan would ever commit the crime that he did. Dylan talked about drinking a lot, but friends say they never really saw him drink and maybe he was saying he did to look “cool”. This could surface another possible motive for Eric and Dylan fame. Or maybe the boys were just bored and tired of sitting at home on the computer, so they began to plan something to shock the nation.


During Eric and Dylan’s tenth grade year at Columbine they began to feel like the outcasts and didn’t really fit in with any group. They wore combat boots and trench coats and began to be aggravated by the teachers and the “jocks” of their high school. Eric seemed as though he didn’t want to fit in, which is odd to me, people that were his friends before high school didn’t make the cut with him anymore. Dylan was the only one that Eric seemed to really trust. Without each other, I believe that the attack at Columbine would have never crossed Eric or Dylan’s minds.


During the boys junior year of high school they broke into a van and stole a few things, they were just bored, nothing else to do. Both Eric and Dylan were grounded and not allowed to hang out with each other for a little while. Eric and Dylan got sent to a diversion program for this crime. The boys were let out of their diversion program early because they did so well. This did not seem to detour the boys, however, and the two continued to commit illegal acts such as setting off the bombs they made.


Eric would be irate when caught in the act of committing these illegal activities and would always blame others for the crimes he committed. Eric Harris was also turned into the police for a website he had that contained threatening comments. Eric’s second website was stumbled on by parents of a Columbine student and they were disturbed at what they saw. The person that tipped them off about this site was none other than Dylan Klebold. The site ranted about murders and explosives that Eric and Dylan planned. Everyone thought they were only bluffing, Eric and Dylan would show them different.


Soon Eric’s web page disappeared and he turned to writing in a journal. There were many signs of distress from Eric including the pictures he drew and messages he wrote in fellow students yearbooks. Eric liked the bands KMFDM and Rammstein (which is a German band). Eric liked these bands because he enjoyed listening to the violent lyrics. At one point, during Eric’s high school years, Eric’s parents took him to a psychiatrist when they realized he had severe mental problems. The doctor gave him a drug called Luvox.


Parents of teens in Littleton seemed to be troubled by Eric Harris and thought he was nothing less than extremely violent. People weren’t too worried though, because they thought Dylan could tame Eric. Although Dylan was also exhibiting signs of distress as was evident in the messages he wrote in fellow students yearbook, Dylan was perceived as a nice kid. Dylan seemed so full of heart. He enjoyed spending time with his dad and didn’t mind when a classmate bumped into his BMW with her car.


It showed in both Eric and Dylan’s schoolwork that they were getting more and more violent by the day. Eric and Dylan chose violent themes in their writing so much that their teachers felt very concerned. Also the way they dressed was getting more rebellious. .


Eric was still the same motivated kid with good grades. Dylan slacked off his senior year. In their classes students noticed one common thing about the two best friends Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, they both had a very short temper. The boys were angry. Did their anger turn into a bloody rage?


Also during their high school years, Eric and Dylan worked at a pizzeria for minimum wage. To their co-workers, Eric was a fun guy who was very social at work, Dylan on the other hand was very quiet and never really fit in with the playful group. After Dylan brought a pipe bomb to work and got written up, he quit. Eric did not. Eric was close with his co-workers and they never understood why he didn’t fit in, they figured it was because of his clothes. They didn’t care how he dressed, they liked him anyway. Eric hung out with them a few times but mostly he thought he wouldn’t fit in. Eric got a second job with a friend to save extra money for a new computer, his boss there loved him.


Outside of school and work, Eric’s friend would much rather visit Dylan, who was more fun. When friends would visit Eric’s house he would only sit on his computer and play games. Eric, who was always named the leader of the Columbine shootings, was not only an outsider but it seems to me he was the biggest misfit of them all. For Dylan’s sake Eric was nice to Dylan’s friends. He didn’t want Dylan to feel as though he had to choose


Eric and Dylan went through a lot of mocking during their years in high school. Eric, which people thought didn’t even want to fit in, endured more ridiculing than Dylan. He was constantly made fun of by the “jocks and bullies” of Columbine. He was called a “fag” and had things thrown at him on a daily basis. The popular crowd would constantly threaten him and make loathsome comments toward him. I think the reason that Eric got picked on wasn’t because he didn’t want to fit in and would walk through the halls of Columbine with a sneer on his face, but I believe it was because he was one of the smaller boys in “The Trench Coat Mafia”. This young man had a reason to do what he did. He was tired of getting laughed at. He was not all wrong in his thinking and I don’t believe he was a psychopath. Eric Harris wanted revenge. Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, always smart boys that had a lot of potential, killed their classmates and themselves after years and years of getting jeered at because they didn’t dress the same as their peers. The Rocky Mountain News states that we know that part of their motivation was, of course, revenge.


The crowd that Eric and Dylan belonged to “The Trench Coat Mafia” was a group of so called rebels. Although Eric and Dylan wore these coats, even with this group they didn’t exactly fit in. The boys in trench coats decided that they would not show the “jocks” fear. The leader of the group, named Chris Morris, liked Eric and Dylan and taught them how to stick up for themselves. Although the group talked about doing what Eric and Dylan made a reality, they were never really serious. Eric and Dylan were never shown in pictures with The Trench Coat Mafia. It seemed the boys really only had each other.


As far as Eric and Dylan’s romantic relationships, Dylan Klebold was a shy young man that rarely dated girls. Dylan never really seemed very interested in girls even if they liked him. Eric Harris on the other hand liked a lot of girls, but most turned him down. Eric did have one girlfriend though, but she was while he was only 16. She didn’t know this. Eric would visit her very often and to her he seemed charming and smart. Dylan would come along to visit her with Eric once in awhile but was very quiet. Eric’s relationship with his girlfriend didn’t last too long since both him and Dylan were grounded a lot and couldn’t get out much to visit her. When Eric and his girlfriend broke up he was very unhappy and Eric, Dylan, and a friend from school went gun shopping. Eric and Dylan bought an array of guns with help from their friends. Eric called his girlfriend many times to try and salvage their relationship. She told him that she only wanted a friendship with him, but called him back to see if he was okay. The messages from him on her answering machine disturbed her. It could be that Eric Harris was heartbroken and once again felt left out, another possible motive for his crime.


It got closer and closer to graduation for Eric and Dylan. Dylan was on his way to the University of Arizona to study science. They boys were finally almost though with Columbine High School. Soon after they got out their guns and decided they needed a little practice. They went into the woods. Eric and Dylan videotaped themselves practicing with they guns. Eric Harris proclaimed on a home video that no one could have prevented the events that occurred on April, 0, 1, at Columbine High School. They were almost ready. These guns would soon be the death of these two boys.


Notes


I don’t want it to seem as though I am saying that it is right to kill people if they are mean to you. I am simply saying that Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold made a statement and to this day bullies will think twice about badgering the outcasts in their school.





Works Cited


Abbott, Karen. “Parents of Klebold, Harris settle suits.” Rocky Mountain News. 1 Aug. 00 1-14.


The Story About Eric and Dylan. 0 Sep. 00 http//www.angelfire.com/ct/chat/longstory1.html.


Columbine Shooting. Know Gangs. 0 Sep. 00 http//www.knowgangs.com/school_resources/menu_004.htm.


Fester, Dave. High Noon at Columbine High. News-4-Teens. 0 Sep. 00 http//www.evildave.com/columbine.htm.


Columbine High School cafeteria surveillance tape. 0 Sep. 00 http//columbine.freehost.net/quotes.html.


Bowling For Columbine. Dir. Michael Moore. Michael Moore. 00.


Maher, Heather. “Evidence Uncovered.” ABC News. 4 Apr. 1.


Prendergast, Alan. “Deeper Into Columbine.” The Columbine Reader. 1 Oct. 00 1-4.


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