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In his article “The Sculptures of Souillac”, Meyer Schapiro demonstrates “that the apparently “accidental” design [of these sculptures] is a deeply coherent arrangement, even systematic in a sense, and similar to other medieval works.” To do this, he analyses the sculptures in a very detailed way. Firstly, he talks about the common stylistic types being bound up with common technical devices.


He then analyses what he calls “discoordination”, and proves that these should not be considered as errors but as a tasteful choice of the artist. Then, looking at the figures more closely (how often they appear, their changes, their disposal), Meyer Schapiro demonstrates that all of this is actually made to make the episodes of the sculpture a single differentiated action of groups. He also relates the figures of Joseph and Isaiah to this same system and believes that they are the contrasting structures which pervade the larger groups and the works as a whole. After describing the trumeau he states that it is more than a “network of abstract, ornamental lines to which the figures have been submitted.”


While trying to understand what this story must have meant and implied in the 1th century he comes up with a list of 7 contemporary interests and motives which he believes could help understand some of the stylistic and iconographical choices the artist(s) made.


The, he compares the sculptures of Moissac, Beaulieu and Souillac to demonstrate that they have a lot of themes in common, which lead to a continuous growth but also emphasise on the peculiarity and originality of each school.





Finally, he briefly talks about how the social, political and economical conditions during that period in that region must have influenced the architecture and sculpture.





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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Gothic Architecture. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Gothic Architecture paper right on time.

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Advent church is a church located at the northwest corner of East Trade and McDowell Streets in uptown Charlotte. It is a small Gothic Revival church built in 11-10. It has rough walls, a steep roof, gabled porch, and a rustic design creates an accent in the area. This is gothic architecture in churches.


Another church which is a late 1th century church design. Also a Gothic Revival but home of the Grace AME Zion. Settlers came into Mecklenburg County right after the War of Independence. Gothic architecture at this time was very popular. The gothic style stayed dominate into this century.


The church was started in 1886. A small group left the Clinton Chapel to escape prohibition controversy. After meeting in different borrowed buildings, they built their present home in 100-101. The red brick is one of the most important buildings among history today.


The building is rectangle. The exterior walls are red brick and have two and three sectioned areas that are tier shouldered pilasters. Which this is the original Gothic buttresses. It has seven courses. There are balanced towers at each side of the building, both different. One is high and one is low. They shelter the reception area of the church which is a large spuare narthex. Both entrances have intricate stained glass windows which follows the pointed arch form of the entry ways. The masonry openings are defined above by single brick headers courses by rough cut granite keystones.





The brick wall rises feet to a water table which they use to store holy water. This goes right along with the gothic architecture by putting the water table beside the wall. Above the wall is a piece of stained glass.





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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Nothing. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Nothing paper right on time.

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This is an essay about nothing. Accept it. I love Arturo and you dont. Stop trying to copy what Im saying. So why am I registering for this? Because this is my last resort. There is nothing else I can do except register here. I am so sick and tired of writing essays for my english teacher. Damn him! So, what else can I do? Let me see, Ill write about nothing! How about that? Nothing at all because I am good at writing nothing. Right? I was born in Connecticut. I loved it there. It snowed and everything. My fingers hurt. Too much typing. Ouch. Are there two hundred and fifty words in here yet? Please let there be enough words in here. Please. Please. I cant take this typing anymore. Too much. Too much. Please make it stop. Enclosed are the photocopied items you requested. For further assistance please call the 4-hour Telephone Banking center at this number provided for you. A separate fee for this service, as described in your account disclosured agreement, has been subtracted from your account. Thank you for banking with Wells Fargo-Your anytime, anywhere bank. The celebrated opening of Jane Austens Emma introduces reasers to her most unforgetable characters. Not only did her teachers lightened up a bit, her grades did go higher, and two people ended up being happily in love with each other. But, like it was mentioned earlier, that was only the start of her matchmaking habits. Then came Thai, the new girl, who looked out of place amongst the mini skirt, tight shirt clad girls in her brown baggy corduroys and oversized t-shirt. Cher knew that she had to help her before she got stuck in the wrong crowd and got mixed up with people like Travis.


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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Down Syndrome. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Down Syndrome paper right on time.

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Down Syndrome


Have you ever caught yourself staring at an individual you believed to be retarded or handicapped? Maybe you snickered under your breath when one of them made a funny noise that caught you off guard. Im sure many of us have been in a situation similar to these and know the guilty feeling you get inside when you react in such a manner to their actions. I think most of our guilt comes from pity and our reactions come from the lack of knowledge on the topic.


People tend to ignore what they do not understand and Im writing this to hopefully change how some people think. Down syndrome is a condition that cant be physically passed from one person to the next. It is a genetic condition in which there is an extra chromosome in the cells of a babys body. This extra chromosome results most often from abnormal cell division of the egg before conception. It can also occur in the sperm before conception of a baby or in the fertilized egg after conception. A Down syndrome child will have 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46. The chromosomal error can be found on chromosome 1, which is why they call it trisomy 1. Why the cells divide in an abnormal way is not known.


Minor cases of Down syndrome may leave a person with different physical features but have such little affect on their thinking process, its almost unnoticeable. However, there are more severe cases in which an affected person will most likely end up being reliant on someone else for their entire lives. Although Down syndrome has been around for centuries in the human race, no cure has been discovered. Affected people have a wide variety of treatments to cope with the disease and live life as normal as possible.





Another aspect of Down syndrome is mild to moderate mental retardation. Down syndrome is the leading genetic cause of mental retardation in the United States. Special schools can help individuals with the genetic disorder learn basic skills needed in the real world, and physical therapy can help with the reduced muscle tone (hypotonia) that is experienced in most cases.


Doctors have done extensive research on this disease over the years and have made some very important findings that are making life easier for these individuals and the families that take care of them. An amniocentesis can be used to detect any chromosomal abnormality before the baby is even born! Unfortunately, 0% of mothers (or mothers to be) use this knowledge for abortion. In some ways, I feel abortion is an option for those parents that are unsure of their commitment and longing for a child even if the child in not perfect. On the flip side, it is a human life. It is said that one out of every 700 babies will be born with Down syndrome. However, these odds may very depending on the paternal age of the mother. A child born to a woman 5 years of age has approximately a 1 in 100 chance. A child born to a woman 40 years of age and over has a 1 in 10 chance. Leukemia is also a factor in that Down syndrome patients are more likely to develop the disease than normal people.


Although doctors are still unsure where or how Down syndrome originated, extensive studies have revealed many helpful tips in making these peoples lives as best as possible. Before todays studies, Down syndrome patients were put in mental institutions because people didnt know how to help them. Several heart defects associated with Down syndrome were never diagnosed years ago causing more infants with Down syndrome to die. Now infants are tested with echocardiograms before they are born to help detect the heart defects early so heart surgery can be performed to prolong their life. Today, some of those that are handicapped are living individually and making a good living.


In conclusion to my studies, Down syndrome is a rare, yet present condition that can be found in all parts of the globe. Most people look at the individuals who have the condition and tell themselves how lucky they are to not have to go through what some of them do. From some standpoints, this is true to all of us. But how many people will actually take the time to better understand the situation and actually see what makes them as special as any normal human being. It is human nature to ignore or criticize the unknown, this will always be true to a certain point. Just as the truth will always remain the same in that these people are beautiful human beings that deserve the same respect and rights as anyone else.





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Abenaki


Abenaki Indians were divided into groups the western and eastern Abenakis. Both have the same style of living. Abenaki originally from England moved to America when the French invaded their homelands. Although not recognized by the historian as a major Indian group, the Abenaki Indians were once a great tribe.


The family was the core of the Abenaki life. Abenaki family included mot only parents and children, as in a modern American family, but also grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and in-laws. “ Abenaki were affectionate parents”( Trigger 155). The member of a family usually lived together and sometimes under the same roof. An Abenaki boy was born into a world surrounded by relatives. Brothers, sisters, aunts, uncles, grandparents, cousins, and as well as parents all took a hand in the child’s welfare and upbringing. When a mother went about her daily taks or worked in the fields with other women, she carried the baby with her in a cradleboard and hung it from a tree branch so the child could be close by and see all that was going on. Children took part in all aspects of family life and were expected to behave in a way that would be helpful to the others. Most importantly, young people were taught to respect their elders. The responsibilities of the men were hunting, fishing , warfare, and the fabrication of houses, canoes, and the implements of war and hunting. While the women’s responsibilities were childcare, cooking, preparation skins and clothing, cultivation of agricultural crops, and gathering of food plants (Trigger 156).


An Abenaki warrior was responsible for the safety of his family, clan, and band. Farming wouldn’t be possible if there was no defense against invaders. Therefore, defense was an important aspect’s of a man’s life. “ To be a warrior meant that one could endure without complaint, all hardships of cold, hunger, pain, weariness. This was what young boys aspired to, and with the help of their maternal uncles, they were trained from an early age to shoot the longbow and wield the tomahawk, and knife” (Mehigan 1).





Joseph Bruchac is a modern Abenaki of Abenaki and European heritage. He writes poetry, fiction and some criticism literature. He has written many books especially for young readers. “ In addition of being a popular writer, Bruchac is professional storyteller. He has made recordings of ancient stories so that can be enjoyed the way there intended to be by listening. Storytelling, he says, helps to keep us connected with the people of the past” (Gleason 7).


Abenaki was a really good tribe that wasn’t recognized by most historians as a major Indian group. Abenaki were great people. One of the modern Abenakis is Joseph Bruchac who loves to write poetry. He made many children books about Indians. He does this so that people would learn about the way Indians lived.





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Written by Michelle Munro (chelle-at-cyberbeach-dot-net), December , 1





The novice at advertising frequently gives the public credit for too much intelligence.


Eric Clark





Manipulation Defined


One of the most widely held criticisms of advertising is that it manipulates the consumer. Those responsible for the advertisements often fiercely defend this statement mainly because the word manipulation carries with it a connotation of negativity, and corruptness. To remove these characteristics an accurate definition for the purpose of this report follows. Manipulation is defined in Websters dictionary as to influence especially with the intent to deceive. To influence is defined as the act or power of producing an effect without apparent force or direct authority. And to deceive is to cause one to believe an untruth. The combination of the above three definitions yields the following


Manipulation To have the power of producing an effect without force or direct authority especially with the intent to cause one to believe something that is untrue.


Keeping the proceeding definition in mind, the balance of this report will focus on the use of manipulation, in an innocent and non-corrupt way, in advertising.


Every day we are bombarded by information, our senses flooded with stimuli. The most prominent and abundant of these stimuli are advertisements. The question then becomes, how do these advertisements attract and hold our attention? The modern marketer needs to break through the clutter and will use any means possible to do so. Manipulation of the subjects senses, thoughts, behaviours, or attitudes i Frustration with change process, pleasure accompanies struggle. s a common tactic. And despite the marketers claim that the increased volume of stimuli society is exposed equates to an obstacle, it is suggested here that this bombardment is the marketers most valuable asset.


Before linking manipulation to advertising in modern times, it is necessary to explore some of the history of advertising, including its criticisms and its dark side.


Advertising may be described as the science of arresting human intelligence long enough to get money from it.


Stephen Butler Leacock





Advertising and Behavioural Science


In modern times advertising has been the target of heavy criticism, typically by scholars or other members of academia. (Olson, 15) The two main criticisms of advertising have been


Advertising creates artificial needs in consumers


Advertising is manipulative


Solomon, et.al., 1


Although Solomon considers these two issues separately, the first can be seen as a form of the second. For example, if an advertisement succeeds in convincing the public they are in need of a certain product, then in essence they have succeeded in producing an effect which has caused one to believe something which is untrue, the definition of manipulation.


Taken to the extreme, the idea of artificial need creation, and thus manipulation, exists in all product advertising outside of the basic essential human needs for survival, namely, food, water and shelter. A statement made by a teenager such as, I need the new Nirvana CD., is indicative of the pervasiveness of the marketers success with manipulation.


In addition to the intentional use of manipulation in advertising, the art of advertisement has also been widely criticized for the various unintended negative consequences of advertising. These include encouragement of materialism, providing incomplete information, careful deceptions and the reinforcement of social stereotypes. Exhibit 1 provides a complete list of these unintended consequences. (Olson)


Olson also points out that although the criticisms upheld by the scholars may be valid, they are not the opinions of the general public. His study, however, was based solely upon the medias portrayal of advertising in the first half of this century. Given the spread of cynicism in relation to advertising it is unlikely the same findings would hold true today. It is also noted that Olsons study was based on articles published in the popular media. The same media that survive on revenue created by advertisements, it would not be in their best interest to begin publishing articles which are overly critical of their main source of revenue.


The rash of criticisms directed towards advertising has sparked a wave of defense from the marketers themselves. For example Charles Sandage states


Advertising is criticized on the grounds that it can manipulate consumers to follow the will of the advertiser. The weight of evidence denies this ability. Instead, evidence supports the position that advertising, to be successful, must understand or anticipate basic human needs and wants and interpret available goods and services in terms of their want-satisfying abilities. This is the very opposite of manipulation.


University of Texas, Advertising Quotes


Sandages statement brings out an important point, in terms of their want-satisfying abilities. The problem with this portion of Sandages claim is that the marketer attempts to pass off these consumer wants as consumer needs, which are entirely artificial. It is indicative of Olsons unintentional consequence number one, increasing the prevalence of materialism in society by spurring unneeded purchases and creating new needs.


The natural progression from this realization is to address the question of how. How did marketers gain this power to create needs and manipulate consumers? The answer to this question lies in the heart of behavioural science.


In the early 100s a new school of psychology emerged, behaviourism. Founded by John B. Watson (1878-158) behaviourism is a theoretical orientation which is based upon the idea that psychology should only study behaviour which is observable. Watson took an extreme view in the nature/nurture controversy. He did not believe that ones family or genetics could determine ones life course. His contention was that we are each born an empty slate and are thus formed by our experiences. His most famous analogy was printed in his book Behaviourism in 14


Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up on and Ill guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select - doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and theif, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors.


Watson, 14


Watson was also at the forefront of the discovery of classical conditioning. His theory was based upon the idea that for each stimuli presented in the environment there will be a response elicited from the organism. (Weiten)


The idea of conditioning was originally described by Ivan Pavlov in 10. Pavlov described a process by which one stimulus acquired the capacity to summon a response previously summoned by another stimulus. His famous experiment involved conditioning dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell. Pavlov began by establishing meat powder as the unconditioned stimuli (UCS), and pairing it with the sound of the bell, the conditioned stimuli (CS). Overtime the salivation, once an unconditioned response (UCR), became a conditioned response (CR), as shown. (Weiten)


CS


Bell


UCS


Meat Powder


UCR-CR


Salivation


In a widely criticized experiment, Watson applied the same principle to an infant. In the Little Albert experiment Watson paired a white rat (CS) with a loud gong (UCS) to elicit fear (CR) in the child. Little Albert then generalized his fear to all things white and came to fear Watsons hair and Santa Claus. (Weiten)


After being asked to leave the Johns Hopkins University in 10, Watson began a new career at J. Walter Thompson Company, the worlds largest advertising agency at the time. It was here that Watson began to implement his ideal of psychology, prediction and control. (Kreshel, 10)


Watsons methods meshed perfectly with the goals of business at the time. The economic equation designed by the business community was lacking in the distribution process, namely the human element. Advertising became the means to engineer demand and the science of behaviourism was the perfect route. Modern day marketing was born. At the heart of Watsons efforts was the use of emotions to elicit behaviour in the consumer. (Kreshel)


Since Watsons entrance into advertising the use of psychology in marketing has become standard. All advertising agencies employ at least one psychologist on staff and most engage in research, as described below.


At one of the largest advertising agencies in America psychologists on the staff are probing sample humans in an attempt to find how to identify, and beam messages to, people of high anxiety, body consciousness, hostility, passiveness and so on.


Packard, 157


Several other more ethical studies have been published recently. In 14 Batra and Stephens reviewed the research and conducted a study regarding the use of mood and emotional elicitation in advertising. They found that moods and emotions tend to influence attitudes, specifically attitudes towards brands, more when the product is of low personal relevance. They suggest that the implications of the study indicate that strong emotional and mood arousals are more important in shaping attitudes when the recipient is less motivationally involved. However, they immediately qualify this by stating that it never hurts to use emotional stimulation in advertising, regardless of the degree of motivation involved. The most disturbing aspect of this study is the acceptance of the use of emotions in advertising. The researchers acknowledge the fact that emotion and mood arousals in advertising exist and that they do in fact change behaviour, but find no moral or ethical problems with this.


In 16 Bagozzi published a study on the role of arousal related to the halo effect. The halo effect is an advertising term referring to the influence of a persons attitudes, with respect to a particular action, on the beliefs of the perceived consequences of that action. In essence, when a halo effect is activated a person will apply a general belief to specific attitudes regarding behaviour. The aim of Bagozzis study was to determine whether or not these halo effects could be created and manipulated (he uses the word influenced). He finds that the halo effect can be created and that it can be manipulated through emotional arousal. It would seem logical that once it has been acknowledged that the marketer is capable of changing ones belief system through emotional arousal and attitude change, the next step would be to discourage the abuse of such power. Instead Bagozzi suggests that emotional arousal is only one way of accomplishing this form of manipulation, and that further research should be conducted to find additional ways to influence attitude-based decisions.


Research stemming from Watsons introduction of science to advertising has continued, despite questionable ethics. Some would argue that we know all we need to about changing the attitudes and behaviours of consumers. Regardless of whether research continues or not, a new era has dawned upon advertising, one that will eliminate the need for further research into consumer behaviour.


Advertising is a modern substitute for argument; its function is to make the worse appear better.


George Santayana





Clutter The Marketers Dream


In his book Data Smog, Shenk draws our attention to the increased amount of stimuli we encounter on a daily basis. He points out that in 171 the average American was exposed to at least 560 advertisements per day and twenty years later that number topped ,000. It is estimated that the average high school graduate will have watched over ,000 hours of television. Historically, marketers have seen this barrage of stimuli as an obstacle to overcome. The method they utilize to break through this clutter is bigger, brighter, louder a concept Shenk terms the two-by-four effect. (Shenk, 18)


Advertising clutter has been recognized recently for the diminished returns it yields in magazines. Mainstream magazines are required to balance the needs of their consumers with their needs for advertising revenue and demands of the advertisers. Clutter arises from the advertisers need for additional space for advertisements. It turns out that increased advertising clutter reduces circulation, thus diminishing advertising revenues in a vicious circle. (Ha and Litman, 17)


The above study was limited to magazines only, others propose that the increased amount of advertising is beneficial to the advertisers quest for manipulation. Schwartz describes the new communication environment where information and stimuli are not only more abundant, but also travel at much faster velocity than in the past. As a result of these changes interactions between people and stimuli take place very quickly. He states


Most important, this characteristic of the new environment eliminates the time between receiving information and responding to it. People do not think out decisions.


Schwartz, 17


Shenk elaborates on this lack of time interval and the effect it has on the subject and its implications for marketers. He claims that clutter is an ideal situation for the marketer and terms it the marketers dream.


In order to understand the notion of clutter as the marketers dream Shenk explores the historic dispute between Descartes and Spinoza. The debate between these two great philosophers was over how people perceive, and specifically at which point in perception does one accept a claim or stimuli as fact. Descartes argued that we first understand a notion, and then we make a decision to either accept the claim or to reject it. On the other hand, Spinoza proposed that we tentatively accept the notion, consider it and then decide if we will accept or reject it. Rigorous testing by psychologists has shown that the argument proposed by Spinoza is in fact the way we perceive, which is ideal for the marketer. Shenk goes on to propose that under information overload, a state which virtually all humans are forced into, we rarely take the time to go back and evaluate the notion that we have tentatively accepted. Dan Gilbert, a professor at the University of Texas states


Its very well known that people are much more susceptible to persuasive appeals when theyre distracted. If Im an advertiser, I want you to be on information load in as many circumstances as possible.


From Shenk, 18


As Shenk emphasizes, the ramifications of this realization are huge. Essentially, this means that society is even more vulnerable than before to the suggestions of commercials. Coupled with insights provided by behavioural scientists, this combination is extremely detrimental to the consumers well being.


Advertising is found in societies which have passed the point of satisfying basic animal needs.


Marion Harper Jr.





The Future An Ethical Approach


To summarize, marketers use advertising in an attempt to convince the public they need products and services that are non-essential to survival. They accomplish this task by exploiting the research of behavioural psychologists and are aided in their task by the abundance of stimuli in our environments, which limits our capacity to interpret their claims. These practices are common place and given that the knowledge is out there it is now impossible to take it away from those who abuse it. However, the uses of these tactics are not always unethical.


Petty and Cacioppo published an article in 16 that points towards the use of such manipulative tactics for the greater good of society. For example, the creation and influence of the halo effect and the arousal of emotions and moods can be used to change consumer attitudes regarding drinking and driving, and other disturbing societal trends. Not only can advertising aid in efforts to change these behaviours, but also it should be their ethical obligation to do so. Hirschman (11) points out that there is a clear link between consumer choices and social problems. The fact that 10 million Americans are alcoholics and 80 million smoke cigarettes are examples of behaviours resulting from consumption patterns gone wrong. (Petty and Cacioppo, 16) Although it is unfair to place all of the blame on advertising, it can be said that advertisements were the catalyst and thus should be partially responsible for rectifying the situation.


In the future the possibility of a regulations regarding the use of facts obtained through behavioural science should be investigated. This is especially important given our increased vulnerability with information overload. Manipulation in advertising will never disappear. However, a more ethical approach should be implemented in the use of manipulation. Ideally, regulations would limit behavioural science to applications in the improvement of society, and avoid the unintended negative consequences that have been recognized.





Works Cited


Bagozzi, Richard. The Role of Arousal in the Creation and Control of the Halo Effect in Attitude Models. Psychology and Marketing. Vol. 1(), May, 16.


Batra, Rajeev and Debra Stephens. Attitudinal Effects of Ad-Evoked Moods and Emotions The Moderating Role of Motivation. Psychology and Marketing. Vol. 11(), May/June, 14.


Ha, Louisa and Barry R. Litman. Does Advertising Clutter Have Diminishing and Negative Returns? Journal of Advertising. Volume XXVI, Number 1, Spring 17.


Kreshel, Peggy J. John B. Watson at J. Walter Thomson The Legitimation of Science in Advertising. Journal of Advertising. Volume 1, Number , 10.


Merriam-Webster. Websters New Complete Dictionary. New York Smithmark Publishers, 15.


Olson, Erik L. How Magazine Articles Portrayed Advertising from 100 to 140 Journal of Advertising. Volume XXIV, Number , Fall 15.


Packard, Vance. The Hidden Persuaders. New York David McKay Company, Inc., 157.


Petty, Richard E., and John T. Cacioppo. Addressing Disturbing and Disturbed Consumer Behaviour Is It Necessary to Change the Way We Conduct Behavioral Science? The Journal of Marketing Research. Vol. XXXIII, February, 16.


Schwartz, Tony. The Responsive Chord. New York Anchor Books, 17.


Shenk, David. Data Smog Surviving the information glut. New York HarperCollins Books, 18.


Solomon, Michael, Judith Zaichkowsky and Rosemary Polegato. Consumer Behaviour Canadian Edition. Scarborough Prentice Hall, 1.


Weiten, Wayne. Psychology Themes and Variations. Toronto Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, 17.


Exhibit 1


The Unintended Negative Consequences of Advertising


Adapted from Olson, 15


Criticism 1 Advertising increases the prevalence of materialism in society by


Creating new needs of desires.


Spurring unneeded purchases.


Increasing the propensity of people to judge themselves and others by their possessions.


Stressing conformity with others as an important consumer goal.


Encouraging a throwaway society.


Criticism Advertising encourages irrational behaviour by


Encouraging instant gratification.


Increasing shortsightedness.


Reducing perceptions of responsibility for the long-term consequences.


Criticism Advertising idealizes the good life by


Promoting products as the painless way to solve difficult problems.


Creating unrealistic feelings of confidence and power.


Showing a standard of living unobtainable by most consumers.


Criticism 4 Advertising promotes the good of the individual over the good of society by appealing to individual greed and selfishness rather than


Community ethic.


Cooperation among individuals.


Criticism 5 Advertisings incomplete information, half truths and careful deceptions create general cynicism manifested by


Distrust of authority.


Disbelief in cultural wisdom and norms.


Criticism 6 Advertising reinforces social stereotypes by


Portraying minorities an women in traditional roles and occupations.


Linking certain people with products, such as women with household cleaners and senior citizens with medical supplies.


Creating unrealistic ideal characterizations by using modes who are more physically attractive than typical product users.


Criticism 7 Advertising trivializes community and spiritual symbols and values by


Secularizing and commercializing religious and community traditions.


Reducing respect for family.


Criticism 8 Advertising uses bad taste and questionable morals that can cause emotional and physical disturbances by


Using fear appeals that prey on feelings of inadequacy.


Using an appeal based on sexual themes.


Embarrassing the ad viewer by promotion of sensitive products such as feminine hygiene products.


Promoting the heavy use of products that are potentially harmful to the health of the user, such as alcohol and tobacco.


Using appeals that take advantage of the immaturity of children.


/ Persuasion, Manipulation, Advertising, Propaganda /








Only the vigilant can maintain their liberties, and only those who are constantly and intelligently on the spot can hope to govern themselves effectively by democratic procedures . A society, most of whose members spend a great deal of their time not on the spot, not here and now in the calculable future, but somewhere else, in the irrelevant other worlds of sport and soap opera, of mythology and metaphysical fantasy , will find it hard to resist the encroachments of those who would manipulate and control it.


Aldous Huxley was on the spot in the foreword of his revised 146 edition of Brave New World - which, perhaps more than any other work of 0th century fiction, predicted the psychological climate of our wired age.


From the page Breaking the Trance on the Adbusters site.


I have not been able to find this passage


in the forward of Brave New World,


and I do not know its true provenance -- ed.


All propaganda must be so popular and on such an intellectual level, that even the most stupid of those towards whom it is directed will understand it. Therefore, the intellectual level of the propaganda must be lower the larger the number of people who are to be influenced by it.


Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf


from Chapter VI War Propaganda





• The Product is You -- a 0-Second Uncommercial by The Media Foundation


from Adbusters


• ...in a military State or a feudal State or what we would nowadays call a totalitarian State, it doesnt much matter what people think because youve got a bludgeon over their head and you can control what they do. But when the State loses the bludgeon, when you cant control people by force and when the voice of the people can be heard, you have this problem. It may make people so curious and so arrogant that they dont have the humility to submit to a civil rule and therefore you have to control what people think. And the standard way to do this is to resort to what in more honest days used to be called propaganda. Manufacture of consent. Creation of necessary illusions. Various ways of either marginalizing the general public or reducing them to apathy in some fashion.


Noam Chomsky quoted on the site of ANTHONY DOUGHERTY


• The Decline of the Democratic Ideal by Noam Chomsky


article in Z Magazine , May 10 (Article is primarily about US involvement in Central American politics.)


One fundamental goal of any well-conceived indoctrination program is to direct attention elsewhere, away from effective power, its roots, and the disguises it assumes.


-- cf. The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy , by Douglas Adams , page 41 -- ...the greatest excitement of all seemed to be to meet a man with an orange sash around his neck. (An orange sash was what the President of the Galaxy traditionally wore.) It might not even have made much difference to them if theyd known how much power the President of the Galaxy actually wielded; none at all. Only six people in the Galaxy knew that the job of the Galactic President was not to wield power but to attract attention away from it.


-- One might suspect that this is the function of celebrities other than the President of the Galaxy, as well --


• Propaganda Analysis Home Page


 Gallery of propaganda film clips


 Introduction The Institute for Propaganda Analysis


The IPA is best-known for identifying the seven basic propaganda devices


Name-Calling, Glittering Generality, Transfer, Testimonial, Plain Folks, Card Stacking, and Band Wagon.


 Table of Contents / Site map


 How Newt Gingrich Uses These Techniques


...Newt Gingrichs political action committee ( GOPAC) mailed a pamphlet entitled Language, A Key Mechanism of Control to Republicans across the country. The booklet offered rhetorical advice to Republican candidates who wanted to speak like Newt. It was awarded a Doublespeak Award by the National Conference of Teachers of English in 10. The booklet contained two lists of words. GOP candidates were instructed to use one set of positive, governing words, (glittering generalities) when speaking about themselves. A second set of negative words (name-calling words) were to be used against their opponents.


-- or here -- Scrutinizing Propaganda By J. E. Hill


• Huey Long [a populist Louisiana governor and senator in the early 10s] once said that when fascism comes to this country, its going to be wrapped in an American flag.


It cant happen here -- can it?


The Prosperous Few and the Restless Many (Interviews with Noam Chomsky)


Copyright � 14 by David Barsamian


.


-- cf. Friendly Fascism The New Face of Power in America


by Bertram Myron Gross


• Word Tricks & Propaganda by Edward S. Herman


Good intro, but Herman seems to take his own biases as the norm


• Lifton, Robert entry


• Mind Control (Thought Reform, brainwashing) and Brainwashing entries at watchman.org


• Thought Reform and the Psychology of Totalism A Study of Brainwashing in China


by Robert Jay Lifton


• (Non-Rational) Persuasion entry in the Notebooks of Cosma Shalizi


• Media Madness by Wendy Priesnitz


...its becoming increasingly difficult to separate the news makers from the news gatherers. Most of North America’s newspapers, magazines, and radio and TV stations are owned by the same transnational corporations about which they report.


• Toxic Sludge Is Good for You! Lies, Damn Lies and the Public Relations Industry


by John C. Stauber, Sheldon Rampton


blurb


• The Center for Media & Democracy


• PR Watch


• The Hidden Face Behind Advertising


By CHRIS McLEAN


• Theyre Rich, Theyre Powerful and Theyre Running Scared


. . .


• Whats Wrong With Ronald McDonald ? -- targeted at the younger set


-- DONT BE TRICKED BY THE CLOWN!


Whats wrong With McDonalds? pamphlet from the famous McLibel suit.


There have been several different versions of this publication.


The original -- which points out that the criticism is directed at McDonalds as the most representative example of a group, rather than uniquely.


EVERYTHING MUST GO


WHATs wrong with McDonalds is also wrong with all the junk-food chains like Wimpy, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Wendy , etc. All of them hide their ruthless exploitation of resources, animals and people behind a facade of colourful gimmicks and family fun. The food itself is much the same everywhere - only the packaging is different. The rise of these firms means less choice, not more. They are one of the worst examples of industries motivated only by profit, and geared to continual expansion.


This materialist mentality is affecting all areas of our lives, with giant conglomerates dominating the marketplace, allowing little or no room for people to create genuine choices. But alternatives do exist, and many are gathering support every day from eople rejecting big business in favour of small-scale self-organisation and co-operation.


The point is not to change McDonalds into some sort of vegetarian organisation, but to change the whole system itself. Anything less would still be a rip-off.


The latest (Im not sure as of when - ed. -- 1 May 1) shorter, snappier version.


Bad News for Fast Food What’s wrong with McDonald’s? by Joel Kovel, from Z Magazine SEP 7.


McFact rebuttal from McDonalds. (N.B., this is reproduced on a McSpotlight site and I havent made any effort to independently verify it.)


Some of McDonalds own pages on these issues


 FAQ


 Food -- nutrition and ingredients


(by all means, check out the cholesterol, fat and sodium contents on these for yourself so youll be able to incorporate them into a balanced diet if you so desire)


 Mc Donalds and the Environment / Earth Effort


 15 Actions You Can Take To Help The Environment ...from the National Wildlife Federation


Thats actions you, personally, can take. Not McDonalds. You.


 McDonalds Commitment to Quality Being the Best ...Includes a Commitment to Animal Welfare


-- read for yourself --


McLibel Burger Culture on Trial by John Vidal, Ralph Nader (Introduction)


UPDATE APR 00


After falling sales and the first loss in the companys history , McDonalds plans to offer healthier choices





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By 16, the term New Realism was being used in the United States and France (where it was called Nouveau Realisme) as a name for Pop Art. That use never caught on in the United States, and then the term began to signify instead, a new breed of Realism. “The traditional variety had linked humanistic content with the illusionistic representation of observed reality and the rejection of flattened pictorial space derived from Abstraction”.


Today’s realists are signaling a return to values rejected by te abstract, minimalist and conceptual art movements that have dominated most of our century. They’re bringing back the art of fine draftsmanship and showing new respect of shape, color and proportion. In the process, they are using such classic genres as landscapes, still lives and portraits to pose important questions about contemporary art.


By contrast, New realism (although an extreme withdrawal from the Abstract Expressionism that dominated the 150s) incorporated the flattened space, large scale, and simplified color of Modernist painting. Some New realist artists, such as Alfred Leslie, switched from abstract to representational painting.


New Realism is too broad a term to have much meaning except a shorthand for a Figurative alternative to the abstraction of Abstract Expressionism, or Minimalist. It has taken many forms from serene landscapes (Fairfield Porter) to slyly psychological portraits (Alice Neel), and from the abstracted nudes (Philip Pearlstein) to the cerebral self-portraits by William Beckman.





The term also tends to imply a “nongestural or nonexpressionistic handling of paint that suggests fidelity to appearances”. The belief that New Realists are primarily motivated by an interest in the way things look is believed by the psychic probing of Lucian Freud’s work or the radially more simplified stylizations of Edouard Vuillard - two artists associated with New Realism.


(Comparisons between the two artists)


Lucian Freud’s main characteristic in painting was a strict linear style of thin, carefully laid-on colors. He abandoned this style after the 150s. He began to paint in an impasto manner - a new, strong, plastic coloration which requires stiff paintbrushes and great physical activity and participation. It began to loosen and the paint left imprints and traces in the color on the canvas - the effect of raw tissue. This has a liberating effect on Freud and leads him to further development.


During the 160s and 170s and right up till the present, Lucian Freud has painted both male and female nudes which have had quite a shocking effect on the viewer. Many of his images make one almost feel like an intruder of the intimate lives of others. Freud says that precisely this feeling of embarrassment and discomfort is his ally, because a picture should disturb and shock, and thereby involve the viewer.


Freud thinks nudes should be understood as extended portraits - for example, “Lying by the Rags”. The model is frequently shown in uncomfortable positions in the sharp light, on abed, couch or studio floor. Sometimes the background, as here, is a mysterious pile of rags used by Freud to wipe his paintbrushes. The painter is looking down at the model from his raised position at his easel, and registers each pore, each strand of hair, every unevenness in the skin. Freud builds the body plastically with the help of thick layers of paint, modeling it in such a way that the painting process almost becomes an act of creation. “I want my portraits to be of the people, not like them. Not having a look of the sitter, being them... As far as I’m concerned, the look is the person. I want it to work for me just as flesh does”.


This self-exposure suggests a willingness and strong inner motivation on the part of the world, as well as the mutual trust and confidence. Freud points out that they are representations of both seeing and being seen. They are in each other’s physical presence and in this way, influence one another. There does not seem to be anything autobiographical or biographical in the paintings, they are extential images.


In “Painter and Model” (shown below) - contrary to tradition - it is the woman, fully clothed, who is the painter, while the nude man is the model. The man’s nakedness, his defenseless body, exposed, is emphasized by the woman’s cocoon-like clothing, stiff with splotches of paint. She seems to be her own palette - totally self-sufficient. There is no eye contact between the two figures - they are living people, while at the same time, completely passive. The only apparent action in the picture is the green paint being squeezed out of the tube by the woman’s foot and the disturbing tension created by the paintbrush pointed at the man. She looks straight ahead, while his gaze is the glossy stare of a model who has been posing for hours on end. In this picture, it is the image and the paint’s reality which brings out the feeling of alienation, isolation and melancholy. This is emphasized by the pale greyish sickly color of the man’s skin, the seemingly frozen foot, the ragged sofa, peeling walls, drawn curtain and the dark, closed cupboard behind the figures, as if they are each in their own closed world.








In ‘Girl With White Dog’, Freud paints his first wife Kathleen, and an English bull terrier on a stripped sofa. He painted in pale and muted tones, the scene is quite simple and somewhat bleak. Both the woman and the dog stare at the viewer with a clam yet intense gaze, and there is almost a sense of complicity between the two. Freud is known for his masterly and near obsessive portrayal of human flesh, with all its flaws boldly displayed. This painting is no exception - the subtle paint tones he has used to create the detailed, ivory quality of the woman’s skin.








People exposed to Freud’s searching gaze appear to be more like themselves than they have ever been or ever will be. It seems as though the artist assimilates the person’s life information into the life of the picture - (Freud’s grandfather, Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, helped people to get to know themselves in order to be themselves - his grandchild, Lucian’s tools, were a brush and palette).





Edouard Vuillard had a reputation, which for a long time, was private rather than public. In his early works, Vuillard used broken paint with small brush strokes. ‘Woman in Blue with Child’ (shown below) consists of his wife, Misia, who is depicted in the painting, playing with her niece. They are in the Parisian apartment of Thadee Natanson. Vuillard probably used his own photograph of the room, whilst painting this picture. The interior is typical of the century, with flowered wallpaper, figured upholstery and decorative objects. Vuillard made the interior a dazzling surface pattern of muted blues, reds and yellows, compared to a Parisian painting in its harmonious richness. The forms of the woman and child are flattened, to be virtually distinguished from the surrounding patterns.











Vuillard’s ‘Self-Portrait’ in


18, shows him at the period


where his works were most closest


to Gauguin and the Nabis, using


color arbitrarily for expressive rather


than naturalistic ends.


In his pictures of the 180s - mainly domestic scenes - small in scale, but intimate in effect. For example, ‘Interior at l’Etang-la-Ville’. Here, he combines the flat planes and forceful colors of Gauguin. He used a somewhat ‘color-mosaic’ style, and the geometric surface organization of Seurat.


Vuillard’s own style had grown more conservative. He never recaptured the delicacy and daring of his early canvases.


(Closer look at two specific pieces)


More closely, we can specifically see how Lucian Freud’s ‘Interior at Paddington’ (151) and Edouard Vuillard’s ‘Madame Hessel on the Sofa’ (100) compare. There are two very different interiors Freud paints his friend Harry Diamond in the corner of a room, bare except a dusty palm and a loose carpet. Vuillard paints his friend Lucie Hessel in a warm and comfortable sitting room, surrounded by paintings. She is seated on a sofa with cushions plumped in the corners and appears relaxed and happy. Diamond on the other hand looks tense and uncomfortable. He is still in his coat and may have just arrived, just about to leave. Freud paints in careful detail (Diamond spent six months posing for this picture), and there is little to suggest the friendship that existed between the artist and his model. Vuillard is seen to paint mor quickly and his work appears to be more of an affectionate sketch.


Robert Atkins, Art Spoke, New York, 1.


Robert Atkins, Art Speak, New York, 10.


Sam Hunter, John Jacobus, Daniel Wheeler, Modern Art - rd Revised Edition, New York, 000.


H. H. Arnason, Marla. F. Prala, History of Modern Art - 4th Edition, New York, 18.


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At the western edge of America, where the continent falls into the Pacific as it follows the sun, the coast has always seemed an image of Eden, a garden of earthly delights. “There is an island called California, on the right hand of the Indies, very near the Earthly Paradise,” wrote a 16th century Spanish fantasist in a novel that gave the Golden State its name. California, and other stretches of North America’s Pacific shore, would become the fated and fateful destinations of adventurous journeys westward by European settlers, cowboys, miners, Forty-Niners and dreamers. There the travellers would pass, or so they hoped, from their old lives � and the Old world � into a heaven on earth.


In spite of the seemingly inexorable European settlement of the Pacific Coast, there are strangers in the Western paradise. Other peoples, too, have sought the “good country,” though instead of crossing the continent, they have crossed an ocean; instead of looking back to Europe, they trace their bloodlines to Asia. They blend in � and yet they do not. Today Anglos in the North American West � in the U.S. and in Canada � are discovering that they have Asian shadows, that the Pacific Coast has become a subcontinent of peoples and cultures that mirror one another in a vague, amorphous antagonism. With Asians bringing vitality and a renewed sense of purpose to the region, is history repeating itself with a twist? Is this the rewinning of the West � by Korean entrepreneurs, Japanese financiers, Indian doctors, Filipino nurses, Vietnamese restaurateurs and Chinese engineers?`


Yet even as they stake their claims to the North American West, Asian migrants are encountering problems racism, the ambivalence of assimilation, the perils of prosperity, ethnic jealousies and the sometimes dire inequities that come with a laissez-faire society. Asians in general are still strangers in the Western paradise, and they are keenly aware of their status.





Many have found prosperity in their new home. Yet there is no pan-Asian prosperity, just as there is no such thing as an “Asian-American.” There are comfortably middle-class, fourth-generation Japanese Americans, and there are prospering new immigrants from Taiwan and Hong Kong and South Korea, all driven by an admirable work ethic. There are also fragmented Filipino families headed by women, and Hmong tribesmen who know little of technology and find themselves dependent upon public assistance. “There are people without hope in the Asian-American community,” says Michael Woo, the lone Asian member of the Los Angeles city council. It is a notion that probably sounds strange to those whose only awareness of Asian Americans is of whiz-kid scholars and hardworking greengrocers.


The economic success of some Asians works against others. Labeled a “model minority” rather than a group of separate communities requiring specific kinds of help, Asian Americans are often shut out of affirmative-action programs, even though many Indochinese refugees are in dire of need them.


Paradise is paradise, but it has turned out to be less than perfect and more than a little disconcerting. What was it they set out to find, and why is it yet to be found? Even as their numbers � and their economic and political influence � expand on the Pacific Coast, Asian immigrants are pondering those very questions.





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Introduction


My two subjects for this paper will be known as Consumer A and Consumer B. Both consumers have just recently bought digital cameras. Consumer A bought a Hewlett-Packard Photosmart .1 Megapixel Digital Camera �0 for $150, while consumer B bought a Kodak .1 Megapixel x Optical/.x Digital Zoom Digital Camera for $00. A few demographics about Consumer A, is that the subject is female. She is 0 years old and is currently a student while working part-time at the Gap store in Park Meadows Mall. Her current income is approximately $5,000-6,000 annually. Consumer B is a 5-year-old male who is married with a child he and his wife just recently had. He is a programmer that makes $50,000 annually. His wife also makes an additional $5,000.


Need Recognition


Since digital cameras are a high involvement product, the need has been triggered by external stimuli. Consumer A, being a student that lived at home with her parents found that she had some extra money laying around and decided to treat herself to something new, as a reward for working hard and being in school. Consumer B recognized the need for a good camera when his first child came into the world. As like most new parents, they want to capture the memories of their children as much, and as soon as possible. Both realized that with the advancing technology, digital cameras would ultimately be more cost efficient, due to the fact that there is no need to buy film or print out all the pictures. It is also more convenient when they want to show the pictures to multiple people quickly.





Information Search


Not only did I find that both consumers entered the heightened attention level, they went above and beyond, entering into the active information search level. They both began paying more attention to advertisements for digital camera. They both also began asking their friends and family with digital cameras about how satisfied they were with their previous purchases. How the quality of the pictures turned out, how easy the camera was to use and other such things. Also, they both began to pay attention and look at the weekly advertisements to see what the price ranges were, what brands were out and what features are typically offered. Also, because both had access to computers and the internet often, both subjects were researching about the cameras online. They went to the store websites or websites of other consumers and researched on how well a product rated. Both consumers relied heavily on their personal sources. Those are the ones that they trusted the most. For example, a friend told Consumer A that their Hewlett-Packard digital camera was great to use, and worth the money. Since Hewlett-Packard is also a well known and well trusted computer source, Consumer A figured that because digital cameras are so closely linked to computers that Hewlett-Packard is a good brand to go by. Consumer B had always sworn by Kodak, as well as a member of their family, who is a professional photographer. On the day that the consumers went to purchase their cameras, they went to the stores and personally picked up the cameras and used them in the store. While Consumer B asked the salespeople questions about the different cameras and their features and opinions, Consumer A only tested them herself. Consumer A stated that the opinions of her friends and family, and her own intuition, were much more valid than that of a salesperson or advertisement.


Evaluation of Alternatives


There are many different camera brands. Some are better known than others, and those are the ones that consumers tend to trust. The features on the cameras are also a major part in deciding which camera it is that a consumer will get. For example, since Consumer A was merely buying a camera for fun, she decided that it wasn’t such a big deal to have a camera with too big of an LCD screen or a large amount of memory. Consumer B, however concentrated more on the cameras that offered a lot of memory storage and a bigger LCD screen. Price was also a big factor for Consumer A, due to her limited budget. She didn’t want anything too expensive, but she also wanted a good name brand camera, with the most offered features for a low price. Apparently, brand names play an important factor in the elimination of cameras. Also, both consumers mentioned that if someone mentioned dislike for a certain brand, it also pushed that brand further down their list.


Purchase Decision


When the time for purchasing came, both consumers took all the ads that week and went from store to store, checking out the selections and to see if that store had that particular camera in stock. Consumer A tried Circuit City and Best Buy, since those were the two electronic stores that she was most familiar with. Consumer B went to more stores, such as Sears, Radio Shack, Wal-Mart, Target. Basically, he thought of all the stores that he thought that had digital cameras. Consumer A ultimately decided to purchase her camera at Best Buy because she didn’t like the selection of cameras offered at Circuit City. Also, she saw that the camera was on sale at Best Buy. Consumer B liked the deal of the price matching for 0 days plus another 10% of the total sale back at Circuit City. Also, the there was a camera with all the features that Consumer B was looking for. Since Consumer A is only a college student, she paid for her camera by cash. Consumer B, being older with a steadier job with many more bills to pay, purchased his camera by credit card.


Postpurchase Behavior


Both consumers are relatively satisfied with their cameras. Consumer A uses her camera to take pictures of her friends, while Consumer B uses his camera frequently, taking many pictures of his newborn to send to ecstatic relatives. For about a week or two after purchasing her camera, Consumer A still looked through the weekly advertisements at cameras, seeing which new cameras were on sale for the price she bought her, and what additional features those cameras offered that hers didn’t. Consumer B, however looked through all the weekly advertisements for only his camera, in case he saw it for a cheaper price somewhere. Being satisfied with their cameras, both consumers have told the others about how good their cameras are, and how easy they are to use. Hewlett-Packard and Kodak have just added two more satisfied customers to their lists, that will spread good word-of-mouth about their products.


Conclusion


I would classify these two consumers as typical consumers. They both went through the five stages of buyer decision. Both recognized a type of need for a camera, Consumer A for pleasure while Consumer B wanted to capture the memories of his newborn baby. After recognizing their needs, they both began doing research on different cameras, by looking online, asking their friends and family members and going to try the cameras out themselves. While doing research, both consumers were comparing the different brands. When the time came to purchase, they both went to different stores and looked at the different selections. I find that having a well-trusted name is important to the manufacturer. As they say, “if it’s not broken, don’t fix it.” Also, I find that having the products on sale drive consumers to buy that certain product instead of a competitor’s product. Also, I find that Circuit City’s 0-day price match draws many consumers to the store. What I find that the retailers are doing wrong, was that sometimes they lack the broad selection of different stores. I know it is difficult, maybe impossible to carry all the different types of cameras, but having a large selection makes the store well-known and popular with consumers, because they don’t have to search far and wide to find all their wanted options in their product. Ultimately, having sales and the products advertised in the weekly newspaper is enough to draw consumers to the store when they recognize the need and want for something. The most important factor, though, in getting a consumer to buy your product, is establishing a following and getting your brand name out into the public. Word of mouth advertising is the best way a manufacturer can go.





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