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INTEREST RATE VOLATILITY DOES MATTER


The variability of interest rates directly influences how the public saves and invests, thus having a large impact on the standard of living. As fluctuations of the rate occurs, return on assets become less predictable forcing investors to re-evaluate their original investment decisions, or face the possibility of drastic loss. Those investors with low income are more likely to hold investments with relatively low volatility, ensuring a steady level of consumption. In contrast, investors with a steady level of income and a diverse portfolio can hold much more volatile investments. Any losses can easily be absorbed while holding the high risk/return investments.


Said volatility affects the business firm in a similar fashion as it does the investor. To manage risk firms must watch the changes in the interest rate in relation to the composition of their portfolios.


The Bank of Canada describes interest rates as “represent[ing] the cost of borrowing money over a period of time � the price that lenders charge borrowers for the use of the lenders money.” As the rate fluctuates the amount of payment to the lenders varies therefore changing the total cost of borrowing by the public which, in a domino affect, affects their purchases, investing strategies and overall the health of the economy.





INTEREST RATES, BOND PRICES, AND THE TERM STRUCTURE


Typically, the price of a bond and the interest rate attached to it has a negative relationship. The term structure of interest rates is the relationship between the maturity of the bond and the interest rates implied by the bond prices. The yield curve, which is a graphical depiction of the relationship between interest rates and bond maturity, can take a variety of shapes because the U.S government offers securities with a variety of maturities. Usually interest rates on short term bonds are lower than interest rates on long term bonds which make the yield curve upward sloping. Based on the same logic, one might think that the volatility of interest rates varies with maturity. Since interest rates and bond prices have a defined relationship, when considering bond prices the interest rates can be found.


When considering a bond its clear whether it will fit into a conservative portfolio or a riskier one based on the derivation of its interest rate, the term structure is related basing the previous relationship to its maturity.


As seen in figure 1 the interest rates on the year bonds are constantly higher than those of the month bonds. The term structure of the interest rates is shown through the higher rate for long term bonds and lower rate for short term bonds. Based on the data, the longer the term to maturity the higher the rate will be. Since the price of the bond and the interest rate has a negative relationship, that prices of bonds between 1 and 00 would have been lower in the mid 10’s and higher at the turn of the century.





Trends that are evident in the cycles of interest rates are long term variability is seen in long trends in interest rates. Short term variability fluctuates around these long term trends.


MEASURING THE VOLATILITY OF INTEREST RATES


Interest rate volatility is measured by a statistic called standard deviation, how dispersed a variable is around its average value. As the standard deviation increases it is probable there will be large changes in the value of the variable. The interest rate is the variable. A higher volatility is evidence of rates that jump far around the average and results in a higher standard deviation, thus standard deviation and volatility have a positive relationship. The correlation coefficient measures the strength of the co-variation between two variables, and can only be a number between negative one and one. If the correlation is close to positive one, the two variables are said to be moving in the same direction. If one is high so is the other. If the correlation is close to negative one, the two variables are said to be moving in opposite directions. If one is high the other is low. The correlation coefficient is useful in identifying the possible causes of interest rate fluctuations by plotting the interest rate directly against another variable to see if a relationship exists.


Based on previous data the following correlations are evident.


• Increases in current output are associated with increases in future interest rates.


• When current output rises the yield curve flattens. When output declines yield curve becomes steeper.


• Interest rates on bonds with different maturities are highly correlated with each other, specifically between bonds of similar maturity dates.


DETERMINANTS OF INTEREST RATE VOLATILITY


Determining short term interest rates. Current short term interest rates have a positive relationship with current output. If current output is low the current short term interest rates will fall at the same pace. The yield curve (interest rates vs. bond maturity) has the tendency to flatten when output is high and steepen when output is low. Such information derived from the slope of the yield curve does help to track and predict the different turns in the business cycle. For example, if the curve has a steeper shape, interest rates will be more varied signifying a change in the cycle, possibly the peak of an expansionary period. Expected inflation also determines short term interest rates. As inflation rises consumers expect a higher return from their investments, thus bond prices will fall and interest rates will rise. Since the direct relationship between inflation and interest rates, and determinate of inflation can be used in determining short term interest rates.


Determining long term interest rates. Long term rates are linked to short term rates. According to the expectations theory of the term structure long term interest rates are equal to an average of expected short term interest rates plus a risk premium. The expectations theory also links long term discount bond prices to expected short term discount bond prices over the life of the long term bond. Although like short term determinants, long term bond prices can be derived from include expected income growth and expected inflation; long term rates do not have a high co-variation with output.


Determining interest rate volatility. The economic variables that influence long and short term rates also affect the volatility of these rates- expected inflation and expected real income growth. Large changes in real expected real income growth are associated with large changes in interest rates. Large changes in expected inflation spark large changes in current bond prices and current interest rates, thus, the more volatile inflation is the more volatile bond prices and interest rates will be.


Inflation and income growth are factors that determine long term rates, short term rates and volatility, yet monetary policy is a factor that influences all of them. When the money supply grows to an excessive amount inflation is likely to be high. If monetary policies are volatile so is inflation. Its affect on real income is not as direct, only through certain circumstances of inflation leading to layoffs of workers could monetary policy affect the money supply.


Other factors that have an effect on interest rate volatility can vary from weather to changes in technology to a variety of economic models. These factors do not have a large effect and are only directly applicable in specific cases.


Economic models and interest rate volatility. One economic model suggests that investor’s expectations of future real income growth and inflation are main determinants and interest rates.


Although economic models are useful in predicting some economic variables, when used as a tool in determining such a volatile variable such as interest rates, it may not be the most reliable. Predicting involves setting up identical economic circumstances within the model, but with the variety of factors on the economy, they are rarely identical.





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Cancer is one of the worlds most illusive and deadly killers. There is no permanent cure, yet. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are procedures that might result in a permanent effect. Why does it come? Where does it come from? are all questions left to be answered. A close friend of mine contracted cancer, a tumour at the slender age of twelve. Again at sixteen the veracious killer returned. At eighteen years of age when his life was hitting a high, an independent young adult fell to pieces when he received he news of his enemies return.


My friend and I knew of each other and our relationship didn’t extent only to the occasional “hi, how are you?” but in the summer of 001 � 00 this bond between us took at a drastic turn. We saw each other everyday, spoke to each other, and did activities together; by the end of camp we knew each other better than we knew ourselves. People found it strange that a fifteen-year-old boy (me) and an almost eighteen-year-old man were so close.


I had always known about his previous tumours when he was a teenager but I never thought I would experience one with him. It was two years before that memorable camp that he had his last tumour. By the end of 00 my friend and I has risen to an even higher depth of friendship.


Twice a year he was required to go to the hospital for a routine “MRI” a magnetic resonance imaging machine which allowed his neurologist to clearly see any unwanted growth, a tumour.





“Hello” I answered the phone, my friend said, “I have something very important to tell you” I replied “what?” he then told me that his “tumour had returned”. I sat there in complete silence; I didn’t know what to say. I had absolutely no experience with such a situation. “I don’t know what to tell you”, I replied to my friend “but I will be here with you all the way’.


Almost a week later he was rushed into hospital, for a special type of brain surgery. His past two operations the surgeons entered his head the top of his skull, this time the surgeons thought it best to enter through the back of the head. The surgery ran for about 6 hours and the surgeon reported a massive drop in size of the tumour. The initial reports showed that a bulk of the tumour had been cut away but part of the tumour was too close to brain for the surgeon to cut off.


To destroy the left over tumour he would need Radiotherapy a technique called “stereotactic”. In my friends case he was not permitted by the doctors to have Radiotherapy. Because in his previous operations as a precaution Radiotherapy was used and he was “radiotherapied out”, the radiotherapy left radionecrosis which is scar tissue that killed living cells, it would mean he would have to be switched to Chemotherapy.


The first time I visited him, I didn’t know what to expect. I visioned him lying in bed relaxing, like after any other surgery. I was wrong, as I walked into his room I saw a weak, debilitating pain stricken eighteen year old that had experienced too much. The pain he was encountering was displayed on his face. It was very hard for him to move, the surgery crippled him from moving his neck for a week and half.


Because my friend yearned to get out of the hospital so quickly I believe that his speedy recovery was as a result of this. On each occasion I went to visit him his spirits were rising. After the first visit, a notable change was observed.


After a few weeks of recovery he was allowed to return home. Specialists informed him that 10 months of Chemotherapy was required. Just yesterday I received a call that his tumour after two sessions of chemotherapy had fallen from 11.1 mm in volume to 1. mm. He was overjoyed. Chemotherapy is a very taxing medical procedure on ones body, it not only kills the unwanted cells it also kills good cells. Vomiting, drowsiness and headaches are some of the immediate effects of chemotherapy. Not only is Chemotherapy taxing on ones physical side but also on ones mental side. It is very difficult to enter hospitals every two to three months and almost every week for blood transfusions.


This brings me to an end. This personal encounter with cancer is based on a true story. Bluntly, cancer is unfair and unreasonable. Why my friend got it is unknown but what we can do to help is to donate money to various cancer campaigns and if you know any one with cancer show and provide support and let them know that “You will be there for them, all the way”.


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(1st Q)


Poussin’s “Holy Family on the Steps (1648)” and Rubens’ “Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus (c.160)”, these two contrasting styles picture influenced to art of the late 18th � early 1th each way.


Poussin’s “Holy Family on the Steps”, this is a classical style picture. The beautiful architecture is placed in the background. The architectures and sculptures are from Roman style. The human figures wear classic clothes with natural color. Sculpture relief is inclined to be a same plane. Horizontal and vertical lines tend to construct a mathematical formation. All human figures make a big triangle and each small group makes some small triangles in the big triangle. So the triangles create a balance compositionally. And two women look at each other diagonally. Two babies also look at each other diagonally, and they are a kind of precision in the composition. Synthetically, the picture is a stable, symmetrical and concise composition. And there is a stiff composition, even though some slight movement is appeared.


Rubens’ “Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus” is painted with the subject from Greek-Rome mythology. The composition is very different with the Poussin’s picture, briefly. One woman is twisting and the other woman is like airborne. Two women do not overlap. This scene likes chaos. Those movements make tensions and excitements. The power of movement is the salient traits of the picture. The picture’s brushstroke that seems to be his gesture of power on the canvas is heavy. The emotional feeling oozes through the powerful movement.





Neo-classicism artist, David is coming out of Poussin. Delacroix is, who comes out of Rubens, the great leader of Romanticism. These 1th century styles, Neoclassicism and Romanticism, are based on 17th century. The two 17th-century styles tend to parallel each other to 1th century. And each style influences Neoclassicism and Romanticism, separately.


Poussin is exemplified in classicism principles and static principles. These backgrounds also influenced to Neoclassicism. In the neoclassicism picture, a stable, symmetrical and concise composition is like a fundamental notion. A triangle is an important source to make picture well balanced.


In the Romanticism style, heavy brushstrokes, emotional scene, power of movements and diagonal composition are important characteristic like Rubens’ style. And some figures come from Rubens’. For instance, in the Delacroix’s “the Death of Sardanapalus”, the twisted woman and the horse is similar to Rubens’ figures.


(nd Q)


‘History painting’ has a strong educational character. So the picture is not only scene representing actual historical events, but also to scenes from legend and literature of a morally instructive kind. The history, which is told in picture making by artists, is treated in a suitably grand and noble way. And the subject matter comes from out of artist’s mind. In academic theory, history painting was considered the highest branch of art.


Benjamin West’s “Death of General Wolfe (1770)” and David’s “Battle of the Sabines (17)” are the good example for history paintings. In this period, painting had to be didactic and serve a moral purpose in society.


“Death of General Wolfe” represents the battle between France and Great Britain in Canada. And when this picture is painted, the Royal academy, which is in London, is just founded at that time. Benjamin West was a historical painter for George who founded the Royal academy. The subject matter comes from a recent history. It is focused on contemporary hero. It is grand style of history painting. There is the sense of distance between front layer and back layer. The costumes are recent style. Furthermore, the scene is realistic. Even he represented the smoke behind figures.


“Battle of the Sabines” represents the moment that a few years after the legendary abduction, when the women, who can be both wives and mothers, stop the progress of a battle between their Roman husbands and the Sabine men who have come on an unnecessary rescue mission. The subject matter comes from an ancient history. In this period, the French revolution was happened in 178. This picture is painted well to incite the people to have a revolution spirit. The relief of the human figures is inclined to be a same plane. The horizontal composition is the evidence of neoclassicism. The heroin’s costume is classic and male figures are nude. David is inspired by the idea that the Greek represented its heroes in nude. He painted it more morally than physical. In addition, David didn’t concentrate on the masculine beauty. He striped away anything that was unnecessary, and then David represented heroic simplicity.


(rd Q)


Neo-Classicism is the influential movement in European art in the late 18th and early 1th centuries. It is characterized by a desire to recreate the heroic spirit and the ornaments of the art of Greece and Rome. After the discoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum, a new and more scientific interest in classical antiquity was one of the features of the movement, and it is also seen as a reaction against the light-hearted and frivolous Rococo style.


In the David’s “Oath of the Horatii (1785)”, neo-classicism styles appear at important points.


In the subject matter, this picture describes the ancient early Rome where was the republic, not the empire. So republicanism appears in the picture. The subject matter is important things for moral education in neo-classicism. This picture’s scene is kind of an educational drama. Each figure makes some triangles, and each triangle makes an opposition of sense of movement going different direction. So the picture’s weight is uniform. Behind of the figures, the three arches divide the whole picture into three equal parts. So the picture becomes three different parts but they are unified together. Therefore, the whole picture is very well balanced and differences tend to create the sense of harmony. And then, the background is very shallow space. The male figures’ muscle is very realistic. Each person wear Roman style clothes which is adorned with natural color.


Fragonard’s “Swing”, this is a Rococo style picture. The scene is represented in the beautiful forest, a woman is on a swing and an old man, who looks like her husband, is pushing it behind. Front of her, a man, who looks like her boyfriend, hides in a thicket and look at inside of her skirt. The whole scene is painted by beautiful color. Sculptures, costumes and most things in the picture are gorgeous. These things make the picture is like a dream. However, the inside story is the period’s lifestyle which is a dissipation and a sexual disorder. In this period, the subject matter is only about an aristocracy. Therefore the peculiarity of Rococo style picture is very esoteric style.


Greuze’s “Broken Eggs”, this picture’s background is the culture of the countryside. The scene is represented in the timber house, a young girl sit down and broken eggs are side by her. Behind her, a man and an old lady are standing up, and the old lady get angry. At the right side, a young child stands up. This group makes a triangle and it helps the picture well balanced. This picture is not Rococo style. Because of the background and the composition. Nonetheless, it is also not the Neoclassicism style. The woman’s shape comes from Rococo style. Furthermore, the subject matter is not for education. The broken eggs are suggestive things. It means like ‘broken virgin’ or something happened between the man and woman. And the child could be their future baby. So the picture’s story is erotic which is never being Neoclassicism style. Therefore, this picture is in a time of transition from Rococo style to Neoclassicism style.





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Increasing globalization of businesses has further strengthened the need for effective and efficient international managers. While success in international management was hitherto determined by self-preparation, real-life experience, and circumstances, firms and educational institutions have realized the need for systematic preparation of prospective international managers. In addition to emphasis on the technical knowledge of international business, emphasis is being placed on human interactions determined by culture.


The culture of any nation is divided into frontstage and backstage culture. Frontstage culture is any aspect of a given culture which members of that culture are willing to share with the outside world. These are those cultural aspects, the practice of which provide tremendous pride to the member. The other side of culture, backstage culture, includes aspects of the culture which members of that culture do not want the outside world to know. Reasons for such secrecy include competitive information, guilty feelings, and embarrassment avoidance. It is extremely important for international managers to understand backstage culture in depth.


In order to prepare for acculturation with foreign partners, prospective international managers should have developed the following traits


a. Country Knowledge,





b. Emotional Stability,


c. Risk Taking,


d. Good Listening,


e. Adaptability,


f. Empathy,


g. Intuition,


h. Respect for Others,


i. Cosmopoliton Outlook,


j. Curiosity,


k. Entrepreneurship,


l. Flexibility,


m. Linguistics,


n. Sense of Humor,


o. Tolerance, and


p. Sporting Abilities.


The traits listed above can be developed through university education or through training programs provided by businesses. Alternative training options are apparent multicultural management and geocentric itercultural management. In apparent multicultural management, centralized training centers are used and mangers from around the world congregate at these centers in order to arrive at common principles of operation. In geocentric intercultural management, centralized training is augmented by periodic training courses located at foreign sites. Executives are debriefed for information from their locations of operation.


As time goes by more and more businesses are realizing the importance of culture in international decision making. Executives are also realizing that systematic education and preparation in cultural affairs and successful traits for international operations are becoming deciding factors in success or failure of long-term transnational business operations.





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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on English Paper on Conan Doyle. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality English Paper on Conan Doyle paper right on time.

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I am writing you a brief letter with a couple of important goals at hand. One, I haven’t said hello in a while and I would like to make sure things are in a good nature back in Seattle. Secondly, I would really enjoy discussing my English class and some of the readings we have embarked on so far this quarter in hopes of convincing you to read them as well. As a good friend of mine, you know as well as I, that I have never been one for sitting down with a warm cup of coffee and absorbing myself into a fictitious novel. Believe it or not though, I have actually read a few texts this year in my Race, Detective Fiction, and Imperial Culture class that have usurped my previous notions on reading for pleasure. Thus far this quarter, we have traveled back in time to the early the 1th century and have started to examine British Imperial culture and the literary styles of that time. An arid and unproductive time of prose this was not! At this time in British development, the country had strong imperial ties to the Middle East, and in result, the two cultures were seemingly intertwined. Stereotypes began to form, and a distinct barrier started to build itself, separating the “white” colonial powers of the West with the “dark” and native savages of the East. These stereotypes and the formation of a sense international superiority is quite obvious in some of the fiction that was popularized in this era. The well-known Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, written by Conan Doyle, are among these texts I have read and have surprisingly enjoyed.


Prior to this class, I had built assumptions, as I think you have, to what a detective novel might consist of. I always assumed that the novels written around Sherlock Holmes appealed to adolescent, suspense-hungry, little boys, who one day themselves hoped to be a great detective. I never would have expected to give any merit or impart respect to the writer of such a trivial sort of novel. It was my view that a detective- themed novel would be a singularly toned short story, whereas the great Sherlock Holmes, along with his companion Watson, would melodiously hunt down and find the criminal. To my pleasant surprise, as I have continued to read several of the adventures Sherlock Holmes embarks upon, I have definitely changed this opinion! The author, Conan Doyle, has an undoubtedly unique fashion of writing. It combines several techniques in which I have found quite satisfying, as the prejudice-bound reader that I was. First, I enjoy how he combines several theatrical tones to his stories, not limiting himself to plainly suspense but throwing in humor, romance, and even horror at times. Secondly, he writes in an unstructured way that lets the readers mind flow freely as would a detective’s mind when dissecting a case. For example, sometimes in his storylines he will randomly switch from one era in time- say the foggy, melancholy, cobble-stone roads of London, to another, the arid, roaming plains of Utah- in a matter of a chapter. His unrestrictive way of laying down scenes, is really beneficial to a reader like myself who becomes easily bored in reading a story that seems to drag on. Lastly, I became fully acknowledged the talents of Doyle after reading an article written by the literary scholar, Katie Louise-Thomas, who was able to read into The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes in a closer way than I ever could. She pointed out many metaphorical and allegorical tools that the novelist uses throughout his writing that definitely added a richer complex than what I extracted. According to Louise, Doyle’s writing is soaked in elements of historical and political implications affecting his viewpoint and adding a plethora of stereotypes to his stories. All of these I never expected from a detective novel simply addressed to an audience of 1yr old boys!


To finally persuade you into trying out the literary genius of Conan Doyle, I would like to provide you with a quick summary of the latest text of his I read. In The Adventures of a Cardboard Box, Sherlock Holmes detective qualities are brightly illustrated as he collaborates with Watson to discover the murderer of two helpless victims. In this story Miss Cushing, an older widow, is sent two human ears through the postal service, unaware of why the event occurs. Immediately, the skill of Holmes is called upon to discover who the culprit is and what motivation this culprit obtains. Like in all of his other adventures, Holmes almost magically comes to a conclusion through a few painless steps. With his rodent-like observation, stealthy way of perusing the scene, and deductive manner of question and answer, Holmes finds the murderer. The remainder of the short story is developed as the culprit, Jim Browner, explains his motives in his sad tale of love and loss. The reader is somewhat attached to the poor man who eventually at the end of the story is left at our mercy to decide whether he should be imprisoned! Now Lilly, you tell me honestly if this doesn’t appeal to even the anti-reader! Email me back if you want to talk. I love you and miss you and would be thoroughly pleased if you took my advise and read a little Doyle.








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How bad can a movie be? It can be so bad that the trailers for other movies are the best part. It can be so bad that youd rather put out your own eyes than watch. It can be so bad you want to find the guys who greenlighted this movie, bury them up to their necks in the blazing sun and pour fire ants on them. Scary Movie is that bad.


Scary Movie is another crappy sequel and, God-willing, the last. The franchise has gotten progressively worse ever since the Wayans brothers abandoned it after the first Scary Movie. David Zucker, the guy behind the Naked Gun and Airplane movies, falls flat on his face in trying to revive the franchise. Its not just that the movie employs gross-out, toilet humor, its that it employs BAD toilet humor. Now done right, gross-out movies can crack you up like any other comedy; witness the South Park movie. . Its all about delivery, and this movie just cant deliver. Done wrong and the results can cause post-traumatic stress syndrome. And boy is this move ever done wrong. There is no plot to this movie and there are barely any jokes. I could count the number of times I laughed during this film with one hand, and still have something left to pick my nose with. I was really tempted during most of it to theater hop into another movie. Any movie. Even the “Texas Chainsaw Massacre” remake. This movie is hell. Do yourself a favor and go see Kill Bill Vol.1 instead.


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no

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PathologyThe ventricular septal defect is located in the membranous septum, it is subaortic and sometimes extends to the subpulmonic valve area. The VSD is large causing equalization of LV and RV pressures. These defects do not usually get smaller and are not known to close spontaneously. The right ventricular outflow tract is hypoplastic and almost always obstructive. Occasionally at birth the RVOT shows no significant obstruction and results in the so-called pink tetralogy of Fallot. Mild hypertrophy of the moderator band and ventricular septal defect should be distinguished from tetralogy of Fallot as the prognosis is different in each case. The pulmonary valve annulus is typically small in tetralogy of Fallot and the leaflets are deformed. The main pulmonary arteries in contrast to pulmonary stenosis is small as well as the branch pulmonary arteries. There might be branch pulmonary artery stenosis as well as peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in addition to the RVOT and pulmonary valvar stenosis. Bronchial arterial collaterals are sometimes present which connect to the peripheral pulmonary arteries. The main pulmonary artery is occasionally atretic and the pulmonary arteries are fed either by patent ductus arteriosus or collateral vessels. The aortic valve is typically large.


Ten per cent (10%) of tetralogy of Fallot patients have pulmonary atresia. Of those patients, 70% have the pulmonary arteries fed by patent ductus arteriosus and 0% by collateral. In patients who have collateral blood vessels supplying the pulmonary arteries the pulmonary arteries may be significantly small which would necessitate utilizing the collaterals in a unifocalization process. Forty per cent (40%) of patients with tetralogy of Fallot have patent foramen ovale and 5% have a right aortic arch. As the incidence of anomalous coronaries are also higher in patients with tetralogy of Fallot than the normal population where it is seen in 5%. The left anterior descending artery might originate from the right coronary artery and pass in front of the right ventricular tract which is an important thing to know since the surgeon may attempt opening the RVOT and causing damage to the left anterior descending artery.


Clinical ManifestationsThe right ventricular outflow tract obstruction may be minimal in the beginning leading to significant left-to-right shunting at the VSD with symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure. As the right ventricular outflow tract becomes more and more obstructive the pulmonary vascular resistance will exceed the systemic vascular resistance and right-to-left shunting will occur causing cyanosis. Cyanosis is influenced by hemoglobin level and therefore if it is low it may not be evident. Cyanosis induces an increase in the hemoglobin concentration and increase in erythropoietin production. When there are large or multiple collaterals from the systemic arterial circulation to the pulmonary arterial circulation there will be minimal cyanosis as pulmonary blood flow will be increased. The long systolic murmur of tetralogy of Fallot is secondary to the turbulent flow across the RVOT obstruction and pulmonary stenosis and not due to the VSD. Twenty-five per cent (5%) of tetralogy of Fallot patients are cyanotic at birth and 75% of patients become cyanotic at 1 year of age. Spells of hypercyanosis are uncommon in the first six months of life. They are most common in infants and toddlers. They again become rare in children more than 4 years of age.


Squatting helps to relieve cyanotic spells possibly due to increase in systemic vascular resistance because of kinking of femoral arteries as well as in a decrease in the venous return. Due to deformity of the pulmonary valve there may be a single second heart sound. When continuous murmurs are auscultated this might indicate the presence of a PDA or collateral vessels. Electrocardiography





There is typically right ventricular hypertrophy with right axis deviation. Superior axis deviation is seen in patients with tetralogy of Fallot and AV canal defect. Right ventricular hypertrophy and left ventricular hypertrophy is seen in acyanotic infants with left-to-right shunting causing congestive heart failure.





Chest X-ray In tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia the heart acquires a boot shape (Cobur en sabot).


Cardiac catheterization


In straight-forward, clear tetralogy of Fallot there may not be a need for cardiac catheterization. However, if the peripheral pulmonary arterial anatomy is unclear than cardiac catheterization may be indicated to evaluate the peripheral pulmonary arteries and collateral circulation. In addition, the coronary arteries need to be studied.


Management


Cyanotic spells


These typically occur when babies or toddlers are upset leading to increase in the catecholamines and consequently increase in the right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and more right-to-left shunting at the ventricular septal defect level. The first line of treatment should be to ask a parent to hold and comfort the child, usually this will break the spell. When holding the child it is best to place him in the knee-chest position to increase the systemic vascular resistance. When this fails then one might utilize one of the following measures


1. Morphine subcutaneously or intravenously will cause a negative inotropic pressure and left- to-right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. In addition, it has a sedative analgesic effect that might cause the child to relax with less catecholamines and less RVOT obstruction. Beta blockers such as an Esmolol drip or intravenous Inderal will cause a negative inotropiceffect and less RVOT obstruction thus breaking the cyanotic spell.Vasoconstrictors such as a drip of Epinephrine or Phenylephrine Hydrochloride will cause vasoconstriction and elevation of the systemic vascular resistance with less right-to-left shunting. Complete repair is typically done at 6 months to 1 year of age. Some surgeons have tried to preserve the integrity of the pulmonic valve to lessen the extent of pulmonary insufficiency by not placing a transannular patch. However, some of these patients would have significant residual pulmonary stenosis.


Course


Unrepaired the right ventricular outflow tract obstruction will continue to increase with more right-to-left shunting at the VSD and more cyanosis. The hematocrit will continue to increase and polycythemia would result. The right ventricular pressure might exceed that of the systemic when occasionally the tricuspid valve tissue is incorporated in the VSD causing VSD restriction. Such patients will have a poor surgical outcome because of RV strain. Aortic valve regurgitation seen in tetralogy of Fallot will increase with time because of increased pulmonary stenosis and more right-to-left shunting with increase of blood volume flow across the aortic valve resulting in aortic valve deformity and insufficiency. This will also explain the higher incidence of aortic insufficiency in patients with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. One should always think of subacute bacterial endocarditis in patients with aortic insufficiency since this valve is the most likely area of subacute bacterial endocarditis in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Left pulmonary artery stenosis or even atresia could develop later on and not necessarily noted right after birth. When this occurs there will be increase in pulmonary blood flow to the right lung developing as pulmonary hypertension. In patients with pulmonary hypertension with tetralogy of Fallot it will be important to either preserve the integrity of the pulmonic valve or place a prosthetic pulmonary valve since insufficiency might be significant. The only time that pulmonary vascular obstructive disease is noted in patients with tetralogy of Fallot are those that were palliated many years ago with Potts or Waterston shunts.


Arrhythmias are frequent with tetralogy of Fallot. Premature ventricular contractions either focal or multifocal or even runs of V-tach are sometimes noted. The older the age of the child at the time of repair the more likely that they would develop arrhythmias.


Myocardial dysfunction is a more prominent problem in patients who are repaired at an older age, those with dysrhythmia and those with residual postoperative defects, for example, ventricular septal defect (18% of patients required re-operation for one reason or another). Late death in patients with tetralogy of Fallot occur in approximately 5% of repaired patients.


Brain abscess should be ruled out in any patients with CNS symptoms. This was a more frequent occurrence in the past as these lesions were not repaired until 4-5 years of age. Cerebral vascular accidents secondary to hypoxia particularly in those with anemia and due to polycythemia. Brain abscess should be ruled out in any patients with CNS symptoms. Scoliosis may result which is also common in other cyanotic congenital heart diseases. This is more common in females than males.


TETRALOGY OF FALLOT WITH ABSENT PULMONARY VALVE


This is an uncommon variation of tetralogy of Fallot. The pulmonary valve leaflets are represented by nubbins of tissue. The clinical picture is dominated by pulmonary insufficiency rather than pulmonary stenosis.


The anatomy is the same as tetralogy of Fallot except that the right ventricular outflow tract is not excessively restrictive. The pulmonary arteries are dilated and sometimes aneurysmal. The pulmonary artery dilatation may extend beyond what is expected from pulmonary insufficiency to several generations of pulmonary arteries causing bronchial constrictions.


Clinical Manifestations


A systolic and diastolic murmur is present. This represents pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary insufficiency. The chest x-ray shows aneurysmal dilatation of the main pulmonary artery. The cardiac catheterization is important to delineate the peripheral pulmonary arteries.


Management is delayed as much as possible because of the need to place a valve, usually a homograft. Surgery is done earlier in patients with dilated distal pulmonary arteries and respiratory distress to halt further progress of bronchoconstriction. Pulmonary arteries could be plicated during surgery. Hypercyanotic spells are not a feature of this type of tetralogy of Fallot.


TETRALOGY OF FALLOT WITH AV CANAL DEFECT


In tetralogy of Fallot with AV canal presentation is similar to that of typical tetralogy of Fallot. The electrocardiogram shows superior axis deviation with right ventricular hypertrophy. In almost all instances the anterior atrioventricular valve leaflet is free floating. Due to the complexity of this congenital heart disease, cardiac catheterization is almost always performed. Surgery is usually done at 1 year of age where the AV canal and tetralogy of Fallot are repaired simultaneously. There is a higher instance of Down syndrome in comparison to other types of tetralogy of Fallot.


TETRALOGY OF FALLOT WITH DOUBLE CHAMBER RIGHT VENTRICLE


This typically occurs due to hypertrophy of the moderator muscle bundle. In these instances the right ventricular apex pressure is higher than the rest of the right ventricle. During surgical repair the moderator muscle bundle should be severed so as to eliminate the pressur e gradient





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Children are incredibly impressionable individuals whom seem to recall everything they encounter. Its natures way of helping the young learn about the bustling world which encompasses them. Because of this innate trait present in our young, it is crucial that they are exposed to a heavy dose of positive moral, character, and behavioral examples. In a genuine effort to provide quality entertainment for their offspring, parents flock to the nearest toy store to purchase games for their home video games systems, video games portraying violent acts and strong sexual themes. These games are in essence providing the negativity that most parents are trying to shield their children from.


Children obviously mimic what they see. They repeat what they’ve overheard mommy and daddy conversing about secretly no one is supposedly around. Children practice the latest fighting moves they saw the Power Rangers perform on their arch villain on Saturday morning television. Wisdom lends one to believe a child whom plays these adverse video games everyday will in some form copy what he is being exposed too.


Human nature in general tends to be more fascinated with the negative than the positive. If children are constantly exposed to the violence and sexual misconduct, it may slowly affect morals. Children would increasingly view this behavior as acceptable.


It is ludicrous to think anyone no less children can see or hear this stuff on a consistent basis without being affected. Rational children are still minors and require parental guidance. At the very least parents will having a more difficult time just trying to offset this negative learned behavior. These video games make parenting just that much more vexing.





Parents and society as a whole are better off finding another means of entertainment for our young. Today’s games are just too adult in nature which will eventually lead to behavioral problems from our future generation.





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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on coon hunting vs. deer hunting. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality coon hunting vs. deer hunting paper right on time.

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Coon Hunting Vs. Deer Hunting


There are many similarities between coon and deer hunting. You can hunt both of them with a rifle, they can be hunted in the fall and winter, they can be rewarding, and they can also be hunted for the exercise and excitment. There are also several difference. Some of these differences include the time of day that they can be hunted, the type of clothing that you where, the way you have to clean them or gut them out, and the limit that you can kill.


Coon hunting is usually done with a . rifle with a clip. A single shot rifle can be used but ist as easy as when using an automatic. The clip is used so that you can take it in and out when leaving and entering the woods. Using a clip is alot easier than loading and unloading a tube.


Deer hunting can be done with anything bigger than a ..








Deer hunting and coon hunting both start in the fall of the year. Coon hunting starts at midnight on the third friday of the month and deer hunting starts on the third saturday of novermber.


Hunting both deer and coon can be very rewarding. A coon hide can be worth anywhere from 5 dollars to thirty dollars. With a deer you an fill your freezer with meat for the year. You can also mount your deer horns or take the hide to a store and receive a couple pair of leather gloeves for it.


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Bartleby, the Scrivener


In Herman Melville’s “Bartleby, the Scrivener,” the narrator, an anonymous lawyer, describes himself as one who lives a simple and mundane life. According to the narrator, his philosophy on life is that “the easiest way in life is the best way”. He is a man who takes few risks in life and tries to conform to the norm of society. However, after hiring a new scrivener, Bartleby, the narrator finds himself pulled into an existence of confusion and conflict.


The protagonist informs us that for thirty some odd years he has maintained a descent business preparing documents for the wealthy. He also makes it known that he stays away from the court room because he is not ambitious and he is known to be extremely safe. By the narrator’s own admission he knows very little about his employees; he knows only what he sees at the office. Turkey, one of the narrator’s law copyists, is productive in the morning and drunk in the afternoon. On the other hand, Nipper is plagued by indigestion in the morning and productive in the afternoon. Instead of confronting his employee’s the protagonist reasons that one counteracts the other. Hence “when Nippers’ was on, Turkey’s was off and vice versa.” By doing so the narrator is justifying the situation and life at the office goes on as usual. As long as the scriveners are productive the narrator allows for their short comings; therefore, avoiding any conflict. When business increases the protagonist decides to hire a new scrivener instead of demanding more of Turkey and Nipper (again avoiding discord).


The new scrivener Bartleby, bring a new element of surprise to the office. To the narrator’s delight Bartleby works diligently from daylight to dark. On the other hand, the protagonist is displeased with him because he is too passive. The office atmosphere is quiet and serene just the way the narrator likes it; however, now he complains that Bartleby in not cheerful and that silence bothers him. But he does not expose that fact because he wants to prevent any conflict. Bartleby is asked to join in on the proof reading of a legal document. Bartleby refuses. The narrator is stunned; he can not believe nor justify why Bartleby chooses not to participate in what is clearly part of his job description. The protagonist runs through his mind all the things that he is going to put forth to Bartleby as to why he cannot refuse. He starts with anger and then he resorts to analyzing the situation and then he is just plain taken back. At this point he decides that he is to busy to worry about it now; therefore, this discussion will have to take place later. The protagonist has just evaded another conflict.





Over and over again the protagonist appeals to Bartleby’s humanity, begging that he give in and do a decent mans work, for it is at this point Bartleby has given up working altogether. To no avail will Bartleby comply. The narrator is very confused. In his own words he states that he would have fired any other individual that was disobedient; however, he respects Bartleby’s passiveness and his diligent behavior of “I prefer not to”.


The protagonist, never claiming to be a religious man, is now quoting verses from the Bible; he is depending on the scriptures to give him the inner strength that clearly he does not have. He claims that it is his desire to help Bartleby yet the thought that sustains him is that this good deed is really going to benefit him in the here after.


Melville relates to us, that it is through the protagonist’s desire to avoid conflict that he examines his own responsibilities for the well-being of his fellow man. Also, it is through the protagonist’s own confusion that he tries to reason with, to bribe, and to befriend Bartleby. However, in the end like everything else in the protagonist’s life it is easier to put the burden on someone else.


“Ah, Bartleby! Ah, humanity!”





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Good leadership is the pinnacle to success for any and all organizations. The single common ingredient to successful organizations, whether they are businesses, governments, sports teams, or charities, is outstanding leadership. When good leadership is present in an organization, everything runs smoothly and the leader is often unnoticed. But when a good leader is not present in an organization, chaos, confusion, and inefficiency dominates the culture.


Successful leaders possess some of the following skills Possession of skills in leadership including having a clear and purposeful vision for the organization, strong communication, inspiration, and encouraging, motivating, and empowering people. Another important quality of a successful leader is the ability to understand the need for change and a championing effort to lead the organization through change. Another quality is the ability to leading an organization through lasting success. This person can transform his/her organization and brings out the very best in their people.


Some examples of outstanding leaders in our society are


Rudolph Guiliani as Mayor of New York City led New York City through a clean-up and thriving metropolitan city. Overshadowed by this effort is his leadership through the September 11th terrorist attack where some will argue that through his leadership, he saved thousands of lives.





George Streinbrenner, the Owner of the New York Yankees, is one of the most successful leaders in sports today. Players admire and want to play for the Yankees because of their ability to win and Steinbrenner’s expectations and demands for winning.


Bill Clinton, the 4nd President of the United States, despite some of his personal escapades, may be known as one of the best Presidents the U.S. has ever had. He led the U.S. through one of its most prosperous times in the history of the U.S.


Bill Gates, the founder and chairman of Microsoft, has lead the computer revolution throughout the world. The progression of personal computers would never have grown as fast without is leadership, skill, and vision.


Other well-known leaders are


Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, Pope John Paul II, Margaret Thatcher, Mohandas Gandhi, Ho Chi Minh, and many, many more.


Unfortunately, not all leaders bring positive change to society but may be characterized as leaders throughout the organizations they serve. Examples of these types of leaders are Adolf Hitler, V.I. Lenin, Mussolini, Saddam Hussein, and Osama Bin Laden.





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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on regulation of financial services in ireland. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality regulation of financial services in ireland paper right on time.

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Primary and subsidiary legislation affecting financial services


Central Bank Act 14 to 18 Outlines powers and responsibilities of the Central Bank of Ireland.


Insurance Act 18 Gives power to the Department of Employment, Trade and Enterprise for its supervisory role.


Pensions Act, 10 Defines powers and responsibilities of the Pensions Board.





Main supervisory authorities in the financial services sector, their roles and objectives


Ireland has a number of supervisory authorities in the financial services area. The Central Bank of Ireland (CBI) looks after the banking sector, the insurance supervisor is the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment (DETE), and superannuation (known as pension) funds are regulated by the Pensions Board.


The CBI is a member of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). All the central banks in this group have the same supervisory objectives. The bank’s primary duty is maintenance of price stability. In terms of financial sector companies, the CBI is charged with the supervision of ‘credit institutions’ in Ireland. Credit institutions are defined as ‘an undertaking whose business is to receive deposits or other repayable funds from the public and to grant credits for its own account. ’ This definition includes licensed banks and building societies but excludes credit unions and friendly societies.


Insurance is looked after by the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment. The DETE is a government department whose mission is ‘To promote the sustainable development of a modern competitive enterprise economy based on quality employment, social inclusion and enhanced working and living standards. ’ The DETE is involved in improving and monitoring labour force development; enterprise competitiveness; employment rights and industrial relations; enterprise, science and technology policy; corporate services and economic policy; trade, competition and market rights; and Insurance and company law. With relation to insurance, the department has powers to request information from companies at any time and to act according to the nature of this information. The department also has an obligation to ensure continuing compliance with regulatory requirements.


The Pensions Board regulates occupational pension schemes and Personal Retirement Savings Accounts, as well as supervising the operation of the Pensions Act. The Pensions Board also advises the Minster for Social and Family affairs on pension matters. The Pensions Board aims to promote security and protection in occupational pension schemes, development of an efficient national pension structure, and to increase participation in pensions to such a level that all members of the community can benefit. The Pensions Board is also an important source of information for anyone interested in pension schemes in Ireland.


Prudential requirements in financial services


Banking Sector


The CBI has set out minimum capital requirements to ensure the banking sector has adequate capital resources. It requires the capital to risk weighted assets ratio for credit institutions to be 8 percent. These standards comply with those put forward by the ESCB. Because of the relatively small size of the Irish banking sector, the CBI determines the appropriate capital ratios for credit institutions on an individual basis. Those set out in the standard are simply absolute minimums. The amount of funds (assets) required for each credit institution is determined as the sum of


a) the bank book risk weighted assets multiplied by the solvency ratio applicable to that institution; and


b) the trading book notional risk weighted assets multiplied by the trading book capital ratio for that institution.


Where the trading and banking book risk weighted assets are calculated based on position risk, settlement and counterparty risk, foreign exchange risk and large exposures risk. The ratios differ from institution to institution, and are determined by the CBI.


Life and General Insurance sectors


In Ireland, General insurance is referred to as ‘non life’ insurance, and has basically the same legislated requirements in terms of solvency and calculation of liabilities as life insurance. The primary prudential requirement in the insurance industry is the existence of the ‘Appointed Actuary’. All licensed insurers in Ireland must have an ‘Appointed Actuary’, who reports to the regulator and company on the financial position of the company on a yearly basis. This annual actuarial review is carried out to ensure that the company has sufficient reserves and premium levels to meet all future liabilities. The actuary also has legislated whistle blowing duties. If, in the opinion of the actuary, the financial position of the company is at risk, he or she must inform the regulator as soon as practicable. Comprehensive rules regarding investment limits, matching by currency and valuation of investments covering technical provisions exist. Technical reserves are calculated with implicit safety margins (through the assumptions).


Superannuation / Pensions


Defined benefit pension schemes require an actuary to determine the level of liabilities, since these liabilities are contingent on uncertain future events (death, retirement, ill health etc). These liabilities, together with recommendations for future contribution rates are determined by an actuarial valuation. These valuations must be carried out at least every three and a half years. In addition to this, every three and a half years each defined benefit scheme must submit an actuarial funding certificate. This certificate sets out the actuary’s beliefs regarding the schemes ability cover all of its liabilities and expenses if it were to be wound up on that date. Again, as with Insurance, the actuary has important whistle-blowing duties in the superannuation sector. These are discussed later.


Procedures available to supervisory authorities for dealing with financial institutions in distress


Banks


There are a number of things the CBI can do if it is unhappy with the operation of a credit institution, or believes it to be in distress. The CBI can impose conditions on the bank’s license; revoke the bank’s license; issue directions on what the bank must do; tell the bank to stop taking deposits from the public; petition to the High Court to have the bank wound up; petition to appoint an examiner; seek (through courts) to prohibit the bank from practicing in a way which contravenes the CBI legislation; and prosecute for certain offences.


Insurance


The DETE has a number of avenues of ‘attack’ if it believes an insurance company is unlikely to be able to meet its future liabilities, insufficient solvency, has failed to comply with the Insurance Acts, has inadequate reinsurance arrangements, defaults on the initial approval conditions (including forecasts), does not in some way meet one or more legislated standards. Actions available include directing the company to refrain from taking on new business for some or all types of contracts; limit premium income; refrain from certain types of investment; realize certain assets within a defined period; and / or retain sufficient assets in Ireland to cover technical reserves.





Pension Funds


A pension fund is in trouble if it has insufficient assets to cover all liabilities and expenses of an immediate wind up. Whether or not a pension scheme has adequate funding is determined at least every three and a half years, when an actuary prepares a funding certificate for the scheme. If the funding certificate certifies that the fund does not satisfy the funding requirements, the Trustees must have a ‘Funding Proposal’ prepared to be submitted to the Pensions Board with the funding certificate. The funding proposal sets out a plan for future contributions to the plan such that, in the actuary’s opinion, the scheme could be ‘reasonably expected’ to satisfy the funding standard as at the effective date of the next actuarial funding certificate.


The role of actuaries





Actuaries in Ireland have statutory roles in life insurance, general insurance and pensions.


In Ireland, every insurance company (both life and non-life) must have an ‘Appointed Actuary’, who is required to conduct annual investigations into the financial condition of the company and report this information to the company’s directors and the regulator.


The Appointed Actuary must sign off on the company’s technical reserves and advise on the solvency of the company. The Appointed actuary must also look at current premiums being charged, and comment as to whether or not these premiums and the company’s assets will be likely to be sufficient to cover future liabilities that will arise from writing new business and establish sufficient reserves to ensure the continuity of the company.


The relevant legislation sets out a framework outlining the conduct of annual actuarial valuations, which is based on the European Union life assurance directives. However, there are no specific provisions given on how the actuary should determine premium rates, policy conditions and reserving standards. The reason for this is the belief that the Appointed Actuary is a professional who will apply good judgment, and follow professional standards in order to maintain a strong financial position for the company. This allows companies considerable freedom in policy design. For this reason, it would be fair to say that the actuarial profession has contributed to the continued growth of new products in the Irish industry.


Defined benefit Superannuation or pension schemes in Ireland are heavily dependant on actuarial involvement in the calculation of solvency levels, contribution rates, restructuring, and many other forms of advice. Statutory actuarial work involves regular actuarial valuations; actuarial funding certificates; funding proposals; reporting to the pensions board; calculations and disclosure under Family Law Acts; and calculation of individual transfer values.


Central Bank of Ireland www.cbi.ie


- Implementation of EU directive on the capital adequacy of investment firms and credit institutions


- Saving and Investing � Your rights (brochure)


Society of Actuaries, Ireland www.actuaries-soc.ie


- Guidance notes


- ‘The Role of the Appointed Actuary in Ireland’


- ‘The Role of the Pension scheme Actuary’


Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment www.entemp.ie


Government of Ireland www.gov.ie


Irish Pension Board www.pensionboard.ie


International Monetary Fund www.imf.org


- Report on observance of standards and codes


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PS2

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Distribution channel is the network of organisations that creates time, place and possession utilities. In order to achieve organisation¡¯s goal, a proper distribution channel needs to be determined. The updated Play Station inspired by SONY is a product that captured boy¡¯s and young men¡¯s imagination.


It is been distributed all over the world. Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) has announced it reached its goal of shipping 10 million PlayStation units worldwide by the March end of its fiscal year. Japan was the top region, with 4.65 million units since its March 4, 000, launch, the company says, while North America received .76 million units and Europe .6 million. The North American figure is about 40,000 less than the million SCE America had promised retailers. SCE adds that its taking the necessary steps to ensure it will satisfy demand for the new machine in the future. It plans to boost production to million units monthly by the fall in order to reach its goal of shipping 0 million hardware units globally during the fiscal year that ends in March 00.


The creation of time, place, and possession utilities may result from distribution channels that are simple or complex. For PS, they are sold by the manufacturer to distributors, then to retail dealers, who sell them to consumers. Thus the participants in this marketing channel are the manufacturers, distributors, retailers, consumers, and transportation companies.


As mentioned above, PS¡¯s main target customer are the teenagers and young men, so they are usually been distributed in modern shopping centers, electronic shops ,entertainment area, even in some mid-night clubs and internet caf¨¦. At these areas, young people¡¯ intensity are quite high.





In addition to the traditional distribution channel, PS also implement the direct sale on internet, as known E-procurement. (us.playstation.com) The products are sold directly from its manufacturing plants to customers. Nowadays, many people prefer this way, especially young people, because many of them are innovators who like the easy and modern way to purchase goods.





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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on ghosts. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality ghosts paper right on time.

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Ghosts


Over the centuries there have been very many tales that tell of ghosts but the question still remains, do they really exist or is it all in the mind?








Types of ghosts.





I have found through my research that there are many different types of ghosts. For example


Poltergeists many people think these are ghosts but they do not behave like normal ghosts do. Poltergeists can move objects such as chairs, tables, mirrors, beds, televisions etc. Poltergeists have never been seen but objects have been seen flying through mid air and also just suddenly appearing out of nowhere, they can also make objects fit through openings which are too small for them to fit and often after the object has stopped moving they are too hot to touch. Poltergeist activity most commonly occurs when there are children present between the ages of 1-16. Some researchers believe that these activities could also be the result of psychokinesis, this is the ability to move objects using only the mind. They also believe that this energy can only be produced by children of this age.


Ghosts of the living these ghosts appear as people that are still living but in great danger or pain. Such ghosts normally appear only once


Spirits these ghosts are just there to give you a sign that lets you know that they¡¦re okay in the afterlife. These signs are usually things that will let you know it¡¦s them. For example, if the ghost liked flowers while it was living, it might leave you a long stemmed rose or carnation to let you know that they¡¦re okay


Ghosts with a purpose these ghosts appear for a special reason, they are phantoms of the dead that come in order to give warnings or messages to their family or to their close friends. These ghosts rarely speak but they point and give signs to deliver their messages.


Helpful ghosts these ghosts that come when they sense that they are needed to help their family through times of hardship or grief, these ghosts are often invisible but the family usually knows that they¡¦re there to help them. These ghosts usually say until things get better for the family





Duties of a ghost.


If possible certain duties must be completed before the ghost can leave this earth peacefully and join the spirit world. Here are some examples of some duties.


1. to avenge a murder and bring the criminal to justice.


. to right any wrongs they committed while living.


. to have their body receive a proper buirial.


4. to reveal a hiding place of money or valubles that need to be returned to their rightful owners.


5. To set right an injustice from which someone is still sufering





The Poltergeist and PK


As I said before the only explanation for Poltergeist activity is psychokinesis the ability to move objects with the mind so I decided to do a bit of my report on how to do it just in case you are interested, the following steps should help your ability to bend spoons or whatever grow (But don¡¦t practice with your mom¡¦s good silverware �ยบ.)


1. What you do is have an accepting attitude. Believe it can happen. Have a POSITIVE attitude about it. you may not have believed you could do it but you may believe it is possible. Thats a start for the proper frame of mind. Next, believe YOU can!!


. Focus your attention. So many people say they are concentrating but in fact their minds are scattered and they arent really into it at all.


. Practice being still. Yes, actually, being still without thinking anything.


4. Learn to Let Go


These are some of the techniques that will help you open up to all your abilities whether you are bending spoons or not.


1. Find utensil of choice.


. Hold utensil in your hand / hands--however you are comfortable.


. Sit quietly--breathe comfortably--relax. 4. Empty mind of all extra chattering and thoughts. Remember stay focused.


5. With eyes closed--slowly rub your fingers tips over the surface of the object.


6. Feel--dont think about it--feel what the surface feels like. Get into the flow of molecules, atoms, energy.


7. This may take a few attempts but you will begin to actual feel the energy.


8. At that very moment when you feel it--you and the object as a blend of energy--just bend it! If youve done it correctly--it will bend!!!


. Remember NEVER apply force! You arent there to physically force it to bend. Thats not point of the exercise.





Please note that this sample paper on ghosts is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on ghosts, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on ghosts will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Microsofts purchasing problem. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Microsofts purchasing problem paper right on time.

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Microsoft’s Purchasing Problem


Problem


Microsoft today is finding that it has problems just like any other company. Problems could come from anywhere as far as cost reductions. All the material used in this paper is taken from the article Microsoft Takes Steps to World Class Procurement.


The problem that Microsoft found when it was looking at its financial material was that it needed to start cutting costs. Steve Ballmer the CEO of Microsoft issued a 1 billion dollar cost savings goal in 001. Today Microsoft was about to meet and exceed this goal. The goal was to be accomplished in 4 months and at 0 months Microsoft was sitting at $85 million. The cost savings could not have even come close to 1 billion dollars if it wasn’t for a worldwide procurement strategy led by Don Jones. Since Microsoft keeps on growing into new markets and new lines of products the cost cutting goal is harder to accomplish.





Microsoft


Microsoft is an ever-growing company from numerous new products in existing product lines to new products in new product lines. A new product that Microsoft recently put out two or three years ago was the X box. The X box is a gaming system that is different from what Microsoft usually puts out for products. Since the X box has come out Microsoft has had to go overseas to get the raw materials to put it together.


Environment


The environment that Microsoft works in is a very global industry. Everyone all over the world has computers and they use Microsoft’s software. Not only does Microsoft have to ship its software globally but also the material it brings in comes from different markets other then domestically. Microsoft today is the leader in the computer software industry. According to Microsoft financial statements history it brings in revenues quarterly from 5.5 million to 8.5 million. Revenues have increased over the years since Microsoft went from a domestic company to a global company. The Global environment that most companies are in now a day makes it a little harder to coordinate a very effective purchasing strategy. There are many factors that have to be taken into account when a company is dealing with suppliers in different countries. The two risks involved are political risks and economic risks. The economic risks deal with the currency changes, the fluctuation of the countries current currency compared to the American dollar. The political risks come from dealing with a company in another country and there political affairs.


Problem Resolution


The problem resolution began when Microsoft hired Don Jones to help out with the procurement strategy. The first thing that Don Jones and his procurement staff did was develop a set of online tools for use by the employees of Microsoft to buy indirect goods and services. Microsoft has online tools that let employees pick up day-to-day things that they need like PC’s that are replaced quite often at Microsoft. Microsoft keeps the technology that it uses updated.


MS Market


One of the online tools that is used is MS market. MS market is the foundation for Microsoft’s purchasing system. The MS market system allows company employees to buy goods and services from suppliers worldwide. With MS market Microsoft employees have the authority, when buying goods, to set spending limits. According to Don Jones, “Our online tools are so advanced that we pushed the buying function out into the business units.” Microsoft gives its employees in each business units the power to find suppliers that are low cost. According to Don Jones, “ Orders don’t flow through procurement, nor do we select all suppliers for the business. What we do in procurement is guide employees to do the right thing.”


Microsoft has 7 separate business units inside the company. The seven units are Client, Server Platforms, Information Worker, Business Solutions, MSN, CE/Mobility, and Homes. Usually on average these seven units spend about $10.5 billion annually.


Global Purchasing


The things that Don Jones and the purchasing department are doing now to decrease costs are pretty big. The first step that purchasing is working on is increasing the worldwide purchasing staff that Microsoft has by 50% in 18 months. This includes hiring experienced purchasers like when Microsoft hired Ken Litton. Ken Litton was the former vice president of sourcing at Rockwell International. Microsoft also has hired Winston Smith; Smith was the supplier diversity director for AT&T. Both of these guys have a lot of experience in the purchasing and supply chain field.


The second step that Microsoft has taken is to strengthen the reporting systems of purchasing in different countries. For example some buying groups that are in Asia report directly to the head of purchasing Don Jones. It is like this in all countries that Microsoft has buyers in.


Microsoft has been working on a few things to cut even more costs and to help out its purchasing department. The first is enhancing MS Market and starting up a new program called MS Spend. MS Spend is a program that will capture spending activity by United Nations Standard Products and Services Code of each business. The second thing Microsoft is doing is introducing MS Vendor Program. MS Vendor Program is a supplier management tool; it helps bring together a wider base of the companies suppliers.


Suppliers


A big part of what Microsoft has to buy is print and packaging for its products. Currently Microsoft is buying print and packaging for its X box, Windows, Office, the mobility group and the Great Plains division. On print and packaging alone for these divisions Microsoft spends $5 million annually. Microsoft was able to cut $0 million in costs by just finding the right suppliers. Microsoft had 15 suppliers for print and packaging and it was able to cut this down to about half. There have been a few other things that have been used to cut costs by reducing the amount of suppliers. By bringing together the purchasing of blank compact discs Microsoft reduced costs by $1 million dollars. One individual business unit was paying $1.0 per compact disk while a different business unit was only paying $0.0. When Don Jones came in and brought the purchasing units together and consolidated most of the practices Microsoft really started to cut costs.


Purchasing Council


A major change that Don Jones made when he came to Microsoft was to set up a purchasing council. The purchasing council consists of key decision makers and budget watchers in each of the seven business units. The council comes together about once a month to discuss the purchasing strategies that each business unit is using. The council also discusses business goals and then it also talks about how to align the purchasing strategies with the business goals. The council also goes over new purchasing strategies and supplier scorecards, which purchasing uses to rate suppliers.


MS Market


MS Market is a very useful tool that really helps out the purchasing department at Microsoft. MS Market is Microsoft’s computer system that places orders electronically with suppliers. MS Market gives Microsoft an easy way to add new suppliers to the database. A supplier only needs to fill out a questionnaire and they will be in the system. The best part about MS Market is that as soon as an employee types what it needs into the system, the system matches the purchase to the best supplier for the job. MS Market is used mainly for indirect goods and services. MS Market is used to purchase $6.8 billion worth of products or raw materials annually.


Microsoft also has a Microsoft Vendor Program or MSVP. MSVP provides standard contracts for Microsoft to do business with its suppliers. Microsoft uses $5. billion of the companies spending to buy supplies from suppliers in the MSVP system.


Supplier Scorecards


Another key to cutting costs for Microsoft is how it rates its suppliers. Microsoft does not want to waste its money on bad suppliers so it keeps very tenuous records. When a supplier becomes unfavorable in the system he is then dropped. Just up until a little while ago procurement was not the ones who measured supplier performance. When Jones came to Microsoft he made it a priority that purchasing rated the suppliers since it was the department that worked with them. The purchasing department came out with scorecards to rate the suppliers. Microsoft spends about $10 million annually to measure the suppliers. The measurements on the scorecards are quality, value, service, innovation, delivery, organization health and supply chain management. According to Don Jones, We’re connecting everyone in the company with the best suppliers through tools and practices and then measuring performance of those suppliers. We are going to expose that rating to everyone at Microsoft who may want to use that supplier in the future.”


The scorecards not only have helped out Microsoft with picking the right suppliers but it also helps out the suppliers. The suppliers now know what they have to concentrate on and do well on. Before the suppliers were not really sure what Microsoft was judging them on. The suppliers didn’t know if they were being chosen for what they did or if people just picked them because they were biased towards them.


Analysis


Microsoft Market


Microsoft is such a big company that it needs to have an electronic or computerized system to order its goods. Most companies can’t have a system like this because it costs too much money. The system that Microsoft has, Microsoft Market, is like an ERP system. An ERP system lets companies control and manage inventory. Some ERP systems can also give supplier selection assistance, supplier performance measurement and control. These are a few things that Microsoft Market has that are in ERP systems. The implementation of Microsoft Market has already been done so the implementation cost has already gone through. According to Purchasing and Supply Chain Management,” Although ERP systems hold out the promise of improved integration, some companies is finding the implementation process to be expensive, and in some cases ineffective.” This has not come into play for Microsoft yet the system seems to be doing exactly what Microsoft thought it would. It is helping them pick better suppliers, and it is making it easier to purchase everyday products. The fact is Microsoft is a very big company so it needs the computerized system. Supplies come in and out of Microsoft everyday and a computerized system cuts down on a lot of paper work. Another reason that Microsoft Market is a great idea for Microsoft is the fact that not only can it work with individuals who are internal to Microsoft but suppliers that are external use it as well. According to Supply Chain Management and Purchasing, “As supply chain members increasingly work together, integration must occur between different functions that are internal to the organization as well as between parties that are external to the organization.” A good way to do this is through Microsoft market not only can Microsoft have internal accountants, purchasing, manufacturing, engineering, marketing and logistics involved but it can also bring together suppliers, warehouses, and transportation providers as well.


Suppliers


I feel that the first good idea that Don Jones had was to set up the computerized system for purchasing. The best idea that Microsoft had was to cut down on the amount of suppliers it had. Like I stated with material from the article Microsoft had too many suppliers supplying the same items. Microsoft had 10 to 15 suppliers to supply blank compact discs at many different prices. The fact that Microsoft cut the suppliers down to the best and most reasonably priced and used them for the same products time and time again really helped to cut costs. When one supplier has compact discs for $0.0 and another for $1.0 and sometimes part of a department is ordering from the supplier who has the higher priced one the costs will be higher then it should be.


When Microsoft cut the supplier field down it was able to work with certain suppliers. I feel that Microsoft should pursue collaborative relationships with its suppliers. According to Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, “A firm can gain many advantages by pursuing closer relationships with suppliers.” A few advantages that the book says is the development of mutual trust. If Microsoft builds trust with its suppliers it can share data with them to see what area it could cut costs even more. Microsoft can work in a joint effort with its suppliers to help cut costs. Purchasing and Supply Chain Management says that another advantage is the opportunity to evaluate which suppliers should receive longer-term contracts. Longer-term contracts could help Microsoft and its suppliers come up with new technological ways to cut even more costs. Having a collaborative relationship will also help with quality problems. According to Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, because suppliers play an important role in an organization’s overall success,” it is not difficult to see why choosing only the best suppliers supports higher performance.” This is the reason Microsoft cut down its suppliers it wanted only the best. Most of the suppliers that are used are relatively large and give Microsoft plenty of options.


Worldwide Sourcing


Microsoft went into worldwide sourcing which I feel is a very good idea. There are a couple of risks that go along with sourcing worldwide and they are political risks and business risks. According to Purchasing and Supply Chain Management the four reasons companies source worldwide are to achieve cost/price benefits, to ensure better quality, to gain access to technology, and to access the only source available. A couple other reasons that the book points out is to introduce competition to the domestic supply base, satisfying counter trade requirements, reacting to the sourcing patterns of competitors, establish a presence in a foreign market, and increased supplier responsiveness. These are all good reasons for Microsoft to source globally. Microsoft already had very good control of the market in the United States so it was a good idea to source globally so that it could get into new markets.


Microsoft I feel has done a very good job with the problem of cutting costs. At the same time it cut costs it tremendously improved its purchasing department. Before Jones came to Microsoft the purchasing department was a mess. Even though Microsoft has improved and has cut some of its suppliers down I feel it is time that it starts to build collaborative relationships. It really helps out the supply chain when a company can get help with certain problems from people that are involved. The key for Microsoft to become even better is to build long-term relationships to help it keep progressing.


Works Cited


Avery, Susan. “Microsoft Takes Steps to World-class procurement” Purchasing.


April , 00.


Monczka, Robert M, Trent Robert J, Handfield Robert B. Purchasing and


Supply Chain Management. P. 1-17, -5, 6-65. 00


Please note that this sample paper on Microsofts purchasing problem is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Microsofts purchasing problem, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Microsofts purchasing problem will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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