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Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 164


Employment Law MGT. 44


Dan Cone


Help with essay on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964




Pamela Jones Facilitator


September , 00


Introduction


The first paragraph of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution reads, “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law, which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” (1). Conceived in 1868 to address the discrimination of black people, the 14th Amendment provided the foundation to build a country where all people were truly created and treated equally.


For most of the next hundred years, discrimination overshadowed the 14th amendment’s ideology. There were laws regulating the separation of blacks and whites in every facet of life, from birth to death. In 164, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which created a legal basis for nondiscrimination in housing, education, public accommodations, federally assisted programs, and employment. This paper specifically addressed Title VII, the employment section of this act, which looks at the evolution of Title VII, who is covered and not covered under Title VII, the impact of Title VII on the workplace, and the policies companies should have in place to avoid potentially costly Title VII violations.


Title VII Evolution


With the passage of Title VII, the door was opened to legally prohibiting job discrimination and creating expectations of fairness in employment (Anderson & Hartman, 001, p. 65). In a free market system, where having a good job will have a significant impact on any person’s pursuit of life, liberty, and justice, Title VII quickly became the arbiter under the new Civil Rights Legislation.. As John Kennedy said when he introduced the legislation to Congress in 16, “There is little value in a Negro’s obtaining the right to be admitted to hotels and restaurants if he has no cash in his pockets or a job” (Anderson, p. 65). With the implications that jobs would have on the overall effectiveness of the Civil Rights objective, the wording in Title VII was designed to address all parties subjected to employment discrimination. Though President Kennedy singled out Negro’s in his speech for job discrimination, the fact was that many people, including whites, were subjected to a variety of employment discriminations. Since Title VII prohibits discrimination in hiring, firing, training, promotion, discipline, or other workplace decision on the basis of race, color, gender, national origin, or religion, the statute permitted all United States citizens the legal right to due process concerning employment.


Who is Protected Under Title VII?


Title VII and the ADA cover all private employers, state and local governments, and education institutions that employ 15 or more individuals. These laws also cover private and public employment agencies, labor organizations, and joint labor management committees controlling apprenticeship and training.


The ADEA covers all private employers with 0 or more employees, state and local governments (including school districts), employment agencies and labor organizations.


The EPA covers all employers who are covered by the Federal Wage and Hour Law (the Fair Labor Standards Act). Virtually all employers are subject to the provisions of this Act.


Title VII, the ADEA, and the EPA also cover the federal government. In addition, the federal government is covered by Sections 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 17, as amended, which incorporate the requirements of the ADA. However, different procedures are used for processing complaints of federal discrimination. For more information on how to file a complaint of federal discrimination, contact the EEO office of the federal agency where the alleged discrimination occurred ().


Exemptions to Title VII are limited. Exemptions include businesses operated in or around Native American Indians reservations, someone who is a member of the Communist party or other organization required to register as a Communist-action or Communist �front organization. The laws permit religious institutiions and asociations to discriminate when performing their activites (Alexander, p.6).


Impact of Title VII in the Workplace


To ensure compliance with the prohibitions in federal regulation, Title VII


established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) and charged it with the administration of the act. The EEOC began operating on July , 165. The EEOC enforces the following federal statutes


· Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 164, as amended, prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin;


· the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 167, as amended, prohibiting employment discrimination against individuals 40 years of age and older,


· the Equal Pay Act (EPA) of 16 prohibiting discrimination on the basis of gender in compensation for substantially similar work under similar conditions;,


· Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 10, prohibiting employment discrimination on the basis of disability in the private sector and state and local governments;


· Section 501 and 505 of the Rehabilitation Act of 17, as amended, prohibiting employment discrimination against federal employees with disabilities; and,


· the Civil Rights Act of 11 providing monetary damages in cases of intentional discrimination and clarifying provisions regarding disparate impact actions ().


As can be seen above, with the inclusion of several amendments to Title VII’s 164 wording, the additional legal strength of the Act has placed more limitations on how an employer conducts the recruitment, hiring, and policies to control the work environment. Collectively, the legal complexity of Title VII has made it difficult for any employer to completely understand all the federal implications of employing personal. In addition, many states have added additional employmment laws which further add to the legal complexities. On the surface what may appear to an employer as a simple nondiscriminatory action may in fact lead to a serious federal and or state discrimination infraction causing large legal bills as well as compensatory and punitive damages. Managers in the position to change policy or control people must be aware of the potential legal ramification of any decision reached which may cause undue and illegal hardship on its staff.


Policies to Avoid Title VII Violations


The goal of any company’s work atmosphere should be to create an environment to maximize the potential of every worker to improve the productivity and growth possibilities for everyone. Because employment law will continue to evolve as time progresses, managers need to develop strong policies, consistently and appropriately enforced, and provide an on-going training program as new issues emerge or laws change that effect current policy. Above all, look at policy through the eyes of those it will affect. If you deem it unfair in there eyes it perhaps is.


Conclusion


The Civil Rights Act of 164 was legislation intended to level the playing field in the pursuit of equality for all people. Individuals and groups have more freedom to pursue their dreams than ever before. Title VII has played a key role in the ideology that all people are equal and deserve to have the same opportunities as their peers. The process of equality for all is far from over. Discrimination is a complex issue, often conceived and ingrained into our subconscious through generations past. Title VII will undoubtedly play a key role in future improvements to Civil Rights through a process most Americans cherish, a free market system. A system that is not only free for enterprise but employees as well.


References


Alexander, D. D. & Hartman, L. P. (001) Employment Law for Business.


New York McGraw Hill.


(1) United States Constitution Retrieve on the World Wide Web


May 1st 00 http//www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.amendmentxiv


() The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Retrieved on the


World Wide Web May 1st 00 http//www.eeoc.gov/statauth.html


() The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Retrieved on the


World Wide Web May 1st 00 http//www.eeoc.gov/facts/qanda.html





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SCM (Supply Chain Management) sounds like surefire saving when it comes to procurement of supplies. It offers more than a better way of meeting customer demands and managing low level of inventory or even having no inventory at all. No wonder why companies invest a lot of millions just for this software. However, automatic execution of sales without having the need for warehouse, stocks and paper invoice could be at hand, if and only if, you’re able to withstand the obstacle of getting SCM started and working.


First, you have to show to your business partners (suppliers) that they would also benefit from the whole process. The thing is, SCM requires effort not only within your business but from each part of the chain. So, in order to establish a strong relationship with them, they should see the additional gain they would have in exchange for the additional burden (i.e. more responsibility for your inventory) they would take.


Then, as the article mentioned, there is always the ‘internal problems’. The business should expect radical changes to the company’s traditional operations along with the grand promises SCM has. Thus, it must know how to motivate its people to work with the new technology. Aside from that, there is the danger of ‘first impression last’. The software might bring some problems on its first few months of use but then this should be anticipated considering that the software must adjust to the company’s historical set-up.


So, with all these hassles and complexities, why would a company adapt this software when it can cling to the traditional way? The point is, SCM is becoming a necessity for a competitive business. Only, the company should be careful in handling the system since its failure might reverse all the expected goals to be achieved.


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As a primarily social animal, we have every connection to this world in various aspects, our family, our job, our community, and our society. Every thing we have done, every decision we have made, all have a certain potential risk or reward to undertake. When it comes to the issue for individual responsibility, it is easy for us to blame for ones behavior on the society, the fate, the luck, the greedy and wicked people. However, a true man with maturity and adulthood, should never wave to develop a sense of personal responsibility for his own behavior.


Admittedly, the society and the time that we now live in have a direct influence on our thoughts and ways of life. As the sociologist Rodney Stark tells us in his book Sociology, people tend to behave in the way that he thinks others expect him to do. When we were in our childhood, we didnt understand the meaning of what we are doing. However, it is natural that we learn to behave ourselves as to get our parents reward, maybe just a candy bar. We came to know what we are expected to do. We are not allowed to shout or cry in a public hall. No swimming trunk can be worn for a Monday morning speech. Sometimes people may behave in a way not truly out of his own will but just to keep a decent social identity. In this sense, we do behave in a way influenced by the force outside.


However, the influence of the outside force can never be the excuse for a person to give up the sense of responsibility. What is personal responsibility? It means to acknowledge that you are solely responsible for the choices in your life. It means to tear down the mask of defense or rationale for why others are responsible for who you are, what has happened to you, and where you are going. It means to recognize that you are your best cheerleader and never depend on others to make you feel good about yourself.


In fact, if we take a short look at the roadmap of our growth, we will find the truth of that everybody should be responsible for his or her own behavior. In early ages, we have learned to make decisions to get different life experience, such as some of us choose to learn piano, some to learn violin, some even learn nothing. Later when it comes for academic study, we try to be enrolled in the university of our own favorites and the department of interests. And it is no exception when it comes for the choice of jobs. Some people may argue that we have made decisions influenced by family or the job market, but we can not deny that whether to go on with that decision is of our own choice.


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Take another look for a person in the society, our boss rely on us because we have the ability to be responsible for our tasks; our lover and friends us trust us because they know we are responsible for our relationship; our children count on us because they know we have the responsibility to take care of them as parents. It is also the way that we interact with other people as well. If taking the extreme viewpoint that personal responsibility is just a fiction, what on earth can we trust? Nobody can be self-responsible and the world just is left to a whole mess of uncertainty. Of course it is the never the real picture of our world and the reason for that is the personal responsibility.





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Are some cases of learning disabilities more a question of a misfit between child and school than of something wrong with the child? Should inclusion include every student? There is a plethora of research addressing these issues. Educators have an arduous task of effectively identifying learning disabilities in children and supplying the necessary resources for them to be successful and productive citizens who can effectively compete with their peers.


The question of whether cases of learning disabilities are more a question of a misfit between child and the school than of something wrong with the child, is no doubt one that needs to be answered; however, the issue of properly identifying students with learning disabilities, must be addressed first and foremost. This issue has been a rather controversial one. One in which much research has been conducted. The Hart Research/American Viewpoint Poll highlights many of our country’s growing concerns about the system of identifying and serving students with disabilities. Highlights of the poll include


· 44% of parents have a struggling learner in the household


· Parents (8%) and teacher (0%) believe that adoption of the alternative system would have a positive effect on the progress of students with learning disabilities.


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· 85% of teachers who see the effects of the current system in classrooms on a daily basis prefer a newer model.


· 65% of teachers believe that many of their colleagues could use more training to help them identify students with learning disabilities.


( Hart, Peter. Parents and Teachers Say Nation’s Schools Fail Kids With Learning Disabilities).


The findings of this research suggest that many students with learning disabilities are not identified in a timely manner for them to receive the services they need to compete with their peers. As a result, many children are placed in regular education classes and expected to function with normalcy, when in fact, they just can’t. Once students are properly identified, what next? Should they be mainstreamed into a regular classroom setting or should they be placed in special classes with students with similar disabilities?


Should inclusion include every student? There is research that contains “differing views” on this controversial topic. Advocates of the policy of mainstreaming believe that “all children should be included in the general classroom, regardless of their disability (Council for Exceptional Children). Still, there are others like members of the American Federation of Teachers who believe that mainstreaming is not necessarily the solution. They believe that “placements should be determined by the needs and abilities of the child and that when disabled children are appropriately included in regular classes, teachers should be given adequate training and support services. (American Federation of Teachers, 16)


Before students are identified learning disabled, one must consider why they have been identified. Is it because they are behavior problems? According to Jane M. Healy, “learning disabilities, both formally diagnosed and unofficially suspected, are now blamed for a large proportion of learning casualties, from underachievers to school dropouts (Healy, p. 17). Could it be the teacher doesn’t know just how to relate to the child, thus creating a misfit between the child and school? Or, could it be that there is in fact nothing wrong with the child, he/she just needs to be challenged? There have been numerous times in my career when I have noticed this to be the case. Teachers don’t know how to relate to certain children, children aren’t being challenged, and as a result, develop behavior problems. The teacher is quick to determine the child is either ADHD or has some other learning disability. It really saddens me when this happens. Oftentimes, these children, (in my school), are African-American boys being raised in single parent, low income housing areas.


As a single parent myself of two African-American boys, I would hate for my children to be singled out and identified learning disabled because of the color of their skin or perhaps because their teachers don’t understand them. As I mentioned in a post on the Blackboard, my eldest son, in first grade, posed quite a challenge to his teacher. I constantly received phone calls about Michael’s behavior. His teacher at the time was actually brazen enough to suggest perhaps he needed to be tested for ADHD. I, in turn, asked her to have him tested in reading. Reluctantly, she reported that Michael was in fact reading on a .5 grade level in the first semester of first grade. He was obviously bored and unchallenged, thus, a definite misfit between the child and the teacher.


Unfortunately, many of the parents I work with trust their teacher’s judgment and do not insist that perhaps there is somewhat of a misfit between their child and the teacher or the school. These parents allow their children to be tested and identified learning disabled, thus setting them up for failure. Is inclusion then the answer for these children? According to Albert Shanker, AFT President, “the concept of inclusion is deceptive because it helps parents believe their child is being normalized. It takes away the stigma of special education, disabled, or retarded (Inclusion Can Hurt Everyone, Apr. 16). Shanker further states, “in reality, inclusion is creating a nightmare for the teachers and is harming both regular and special students (Shanker, Apr. 16). The Council for Learning Disabilities supports school reform efforts that “enhance the education of all students, including those with learning disabilities.” The Council “supports the education of students with learning disabilities in regular classroom settings when deemed “appropriately by the IEP (Individual Education Program) team. However, the Council “cannot support indiscriminate full-time placement of all students with learning disabilities in the regular education classroom also known as, inclusion (Council for Learning Disabilities, 1).”


Essentially, the issue of whether some cases of learning disabilities are more a question of a misfit between child and school than of something wrong with the child is one to be researched and debated for years to come. Teachers must be trained to identify, as well as to work with children with learning disabilities. Teachers must be trained to look for other possible solutions to behavior problems, and not just assume a child with these problems is learning disabled. The bottom line is that “NO CHILD IS LEFT BEHIND” and we, as educators, must do whatever is necessary to ensure that all children receive a quality education that positions them to be successful, productive adults. Children are truly a gift from God and the Bible clearly states we are to “train up a child in the way that he should go and when he is old, he will not depart from it (Proverbs 6).” If God says it, that settles it. All children deserve the very best we have to offer, regular education students, as well as learning disabled students.








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Like any other subjects, Philosophy of the Human Person has its own importance. But what is really the significance of this subject that we should take it seriously and not regard it simply as a part of the curriculum? What’s in it that makes it equally important with the major subjects?


For me, I think that this subject is really important and must be a concern to everyone since it is about us humans. It would teach us how to achieve humanness. At the same time it would reveal to us the vulnerability of man to become inhuman. It would also be a great help of knowing how to live our lives, how to deal with the things that would come our way. It would make us understand some things in the world we live in. Maybe it can provide answers to some questions we’ve been asking ourselves and eventually be able to find our true identity. I also think that it would make me understand more the meaning of words such as life, love, morality and freedom which are not just mere words.


I guess this subject would be a help too in widening my thinking. I would be gaining more knowledge since I would be exposed to different views from different people.


I think that this subject is really worth taking because it’s not just about them, about other people, but most importantly about me. Studying it then would me unlocking and discovering a part of me.There are many images of the Church that we already know. In the Scripture,


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the Church was presented to us as the mustard seed, the vineyard of God, the hidden


treasure, the leaven and many more. Such images were used because going back to


the biblical past the leaven and the mustard were of major use. In the modern sense what would be our image of the Church?


For our group, we chose bridge to represent the Church. A bridge connects one


two places, just like the Church which connects us to God. Its like that we are on one end


and God at the other end. To get there, the Church helps us. It serves as an intermediary


to knowing God and Jesus.


The architect of this bridge is God Himself, the one who built is Jesus and the


one who lights the way is the Holy Spirit. The one who decides to pass the bridge are the


members of the Church. Along the way they are guided by the Spirit.


In our work, you could see that the pictures there includes all kinds of people --- rich, poor,


young, old. We want to show that this bridge is open for all. There are no qualifications in order


to be a member of the Church, you need not pay any membership fee.


You could also notice that in the picture, they are headed by a priest. Just like in the Church,


the priest are the ones who guides the followers. They are like the apostles who





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Wennberg, J. (00). Unwarranted variations in healthcare delivery implications for


academic medical centers. (Education and debate). British Medical Journal, 5(770), 61-64.


Abstract


Professor Wennberg describes the not so uncommon variations that occur in the practice of medicine. He states that some of these differing practices are unjustifiable since no valid reason exists for these varying standards of care.


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However, the professor does comment on areas in which practices justifiably diverge. Some healthcare providers institute methods proven effective in the literature they read. These practices do not compromise care and do not substitute for basic medical principles. They instead strengthen the quality of care. He also states that in particular cases, two equally-effective treatments might be available. The physician can then allow the patient to make the decision on his or her course of treatment.


Professor Wennberg also analyzes the phenomenon of supply-sensitive care. He cites studies of certain locations where an increase in the number of physicians led to more visits, diagnostic testing, and hospitalizations. He concludes by offering solutions for these various practice methods, placing the responsibility on the government and academic medical centers to prioritize these differences and initiate change to improve the system.


Annotation


The notion that all physicians attending four-year medical schools study the same basic sciences and therefore adopt the same basic practice methods upon completion of residency programs, is actually a complete misconception. The evidence presented in the article is quite alarming since it appears the issue of variation is not a priority and is thus being ignored by the system. Even simple practices such as the prescribing of beta-blocker medications after a Myocardial Infarction are neglected amongst providers. The medical community should consider certain treatments standards of care. Providers must become educated on these issues and continue to learn so their patients are not underserved.


I have often wondered in my own experiences of working for over forty-five Emergency Physicians, just what would have happened with that certain trauma patient or appendicitis case had another doctor been on duty that particular day. How would treatment and diagnosing been done differently and most importantly, would the final outcome have been the same? Physicians, however, do tend to assimilate with the standards of practice of the colleagues they practice with directly. I have personally seen “green” doctors, those physicians right out of residency programs, equipped with all the most current knowledge of procedures and treatments, actually convince hardened, stubborn, “old school” doctors to change their practice methods. Practice variations do certainly exist even amongst providers in the same groups.


With all the proof that increased frequency of use of the healthcare system does not improve health outcomes, the problem of variation must be addressed. Physicians who are delivering equal care with decreased lengths of stay and/or more cost-effective measures must educate the outliers once identified. The common physician attitude that “money is no issue in medicine” has to change.


Perhaps since medicine is not an exact science, standardization is not useful or beneficial in all areas. However, patients as consumers can only hope and trust that their providers are practicing at least what their colleagues consider “best medicine.”


Callahan, J. (16). Social Work With Suicidal Clients Challenges of Implementing


Practice Guidelines and Standards of Care. Health and Social Work, 1(4), 77-8.





Abstract


Professor Callahan discusses the difficulties and ultimate failure of attempting to enact social work standards of care for suicidal patients in one hospital setting. He notes how other disciplines have developed guidelines for liability purposes and that social workers must also protect themselves. He also cites the increased popularity of standards due to quality issues based on variations of practices. These differences can lead to the ineffective and inappropriate treatment of patients and the waste of precious healthcare dollars.


This particular attempt to establish standards proved unsuccessful. The hospital staff of social workers agreed that a cookbook method would be much too simplified and thus ineffective. Individual patient cases were very complex and varied by a number of factors. The social workers all had differing opinions on how to approach suicidal patients; therefore, they were unable to reach a consensus. The staff felt too constrained by standards and emphasized the need of clinical judgment in decision making.


Annotation


The belief that medical practice is an art rather than a science transcends into all disciplines and specialties of the healthcare system. Social workers, therapists, physicians, and nurses all encompass this idea. Most clinicians would probably agree that their daily operational activities and decision-making processes cannot possibly be standardized into steps and made mandatory practice. They would rather rely on their educational background, training, and personal experiences.


The attempt to establish health care guidelines initially stemmed from quality and increasing cost issues. These standards have encountered much resistance from all sides of the healthcare community. Issues over who should write the protocols, mandatory use versus educational tool application, and feelings of confinement among staff members have often been the demise of these standards of care.


Individual patients have different needs and factors involved with their care. For this reason, it would be very difficult to generalize a patient’s case based on a set of standard written protocols. The patient’s management could be misallocated, meaning under- or over-treatment. Misallocation is an example of how guidelines could potentially harm the quality they set out to improve.


The article emphasizes the difficulty of getting a group of professionals to establish a certain practice. Ironically, the only consensus they were able to arrive at was their desire for autonomy, to practice free of restrictions. It is important for healthcare providers to be able to diagnose clinically since they are the ones actually laying eyes on the patient. The presentation of a patient does not always conform to what the textbooks say. Clinicians must thus be able to use their judgment in deciding what is best for their patient. Nothing is for certain in medicine, and perhaps this deduction is why guidelines are not widely accepted “gold standards” of care.


Choudhry, N., Stelfox, H., Detsky, A. (00). Relationships between authors of clinical


practice guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry. (Original contribution). The Journal of the American Medical Association, 87(5), 61-617.


Abstract


The authors conclude that a significant relationship exists between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry. This interactions might control some physician practices. 5% of physicians surveyed who authored 7 different practice guidelines had connections to the pharmaceutical companies of the drugs mentioned in their guidelines.


To reduce potential financial conflicts of interest for authors of guidelines and the companies they endorse, the article offers three suggestions. The writers of the guidelines must disclose potential conflicts formally from the beginning, before guideline meetings take place. Also, if a “significant” conflict of interest exists, such as equity in the company whose drug is mentioned in the guideline, then the author should be excluded. Lastly, the readers of the guideline must have access to full disclosure of the authors’ ties with the industry. The authors of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and the pharmaceutical companies they are connected to have a responsibility to appropriately disclose this information.


Annotation


The recent corruption and scandal in Corporate America appears to also be occurring in the highly esteemed industry of healthcare. Though it is happening to a lesser degree, the ethical nature of medicine has long been the reason for the public’s respect of the profession.


The study citing that 5% of physicians had direct relations with the pharmaceutical companies who manufactured the drugs in the guidelines forces one to question the motivations of these providers. Are they authoring these guidelines to promote a drug that they in fact believe improves the quality of their patients’ care or are they merely supplementing their incomes? These questionable motives and relationships only defile the profession and build public resentment. Patients need to be able to trust and have confidence that their physicians are practicing morally.


It is important to note that the writers of this study are quick to disclose that their findings had no financial backing from the pharmaceutical industry. The types of relationships of the physicians to the companies ranged from equity (6%) to travel funding/honorarium (5%) to research support (58%) and employee/consultant (8%). The reason why these connections are of significance is one can only question how much the “kickbacks” drive up the cost of the medications. Are these increases passed onto the patient so the company can maintain large profit margins? There appears to an epidemic of self-interest. The guidelines seem questionably credible and authentic.


The relevance of these ties between the authors of the guidelines and the pharmaceutical industry to health care focuses on possible unethical behaviors on the part of providers and the rising health care costs that result from these actions. It is the fiduciary duty of the authors to disclose this information fully and clearly as to the nature of their relationships. Medicine has long been regarded as a highly esteemed profession. The reputation of the industry itself must be preserved. As long as these relationships are held secret, the healthcare industry is allowing a scandal no different than those already exposed in Corporate America. It would be a disgrace to lose the integrity and credibility of the profession based on those few providers succumbing to the albatrosses of all-inclusive trips to St. Thomas and gratis steak dinners.


Summary


Healthcare is certainly a unique industry. It is highly esteemed and extremely complex. As with any profession, medicine has its share of difficulties and obstacles. One of the problems of the healthcare system involves the standardization of care through guidelines and protocols. As one discovers, this issue uncovers many others as well.


The varying clinical practices of providers seem unexplainable. Why does one physician treat differently than another when the basic medical school education and training appear uniform throughout the country? Though it is important for providers to maintain autonomy in their practices, there must be a system in place to hold physicians accountable for their decisions. Whether this is established with the assistance of the government or medical academic centers, it is evident that the profession needs a foundation for cost-containment and quality assurance.


The establishment of guidelines proves difficult amongst all disciplines. Healthcare providers desire to practice free of constraints. Protocols and guidelines tend to be restrictive. Since practice patterns vary, it is difficult to even get providers to agree on their establishment. Healthcare workers rely on their educational backgrounds, training, and continuing instruction to help their patients. Cases differ and are as distinctive as the system itself. Standardization of care fares difficult if not impossible.


The healthcare field is a highly respected one. When questionable practices arise, these actions only threaten the respected reputation of the industry. Providers have a responsibility to maintain trust and confidence with the public. Such ridiculousness like the study revealing the approximately 60% of physicians with direct ties to the pharmaceutical companies through employment, travel, and kickbacks, only dishonors the profession. It is a travesty that such a noble profession could fall into the same corruption patterns that other industries have recently experienced.


Healthcare is a delicate, unique industry. The standards of care and practices often involve life and death matters. Perhaps protocols and guidelines are not the final answer due to their restrictive nature, but they are a step in the direction of cost-containment and quality improvement. Healthcare is an evolving process with continuously new technologies, research discoveries, and other various changes. The industry must work together to ensure the practice of the “best medicine,” reducing overall healthcare costs and increasing patient satisfaction.





Appendix


Articles referred to in the Annotated Bibliograpy





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After two centuries it is quite common for a literary works message to become outdated and forgotten. Few works can surpass the


longevity of Desiderata. Discovered carved into the wall of a church, its author has long been forgotten. However, his messages have


managed to pass the test of time. He states that people should not judge one another, because it causes vanity and bitterness. The author also


goes on to say we should be at peace with God. He acknowledges that we may all have a different god and that is ok. And lastly he tells us to


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pass by the noise and confusion of every day life and find peace and quiet. These lessons were all carved into a wall in the 1th century. Its


lessons on the danger of vanity, preservation of spirit, and value of silence still have their place in a 1st century society.


In todays society we judge we often judge one another. The author states, If you compare yourself with others, you may become vain and


bitter; for always there will be greater and lesser persons than yourself. When I see this I think of the underlying point; do not judge people. I


know I have judged people before on various things. I often judge peoples interests, style, intelligience, and personality. I know what I am is


pointless. However, in todays society is very hard to escape the pressures of placing people in different classes. I think that I do it because I


dont want to feel like just one of the crowd. I want people to see me and know I am different from the others. I also want that difference to be a


good one. This causes me to judge people harshly and put myself over them.


Religion is a heated topic. Everyone has their different beliefs. In our world today hatred and violence are often caused by differences in


religion. The author acknowledges that people have different gods when he says, Therfore be at peace with God,w hatever you conceive Him to


be. I take this to mean that people should have a personal relationship with their own god. A relationship that is not open to influence form other


people seeking power and wealth. I feel that there is a supreme being. However, I am not comfortable with having someone telling me how I


should show my loyalty to my God. I want a personal relationship with my God. This seperates me from historical religous prejudices and


corruption. My beliefs allow me to accept that others have different ideas on religion.


In the non-stop bustling world we live in today it is very hard to find time for peace and quiet. After school we go off with our friends, go to


the movies, parties, and concerts. We laugh, talk, and generally have a good time. However, I often wonder if we have lost touch with ourselves.


Can we no longer enjoy the simpler things in life. We have become fully accustomed to driving in the fast lane. I have always taken the time to


have peace and quiet. I feel I can work out my problems better when I am alone in quiet. I enjoy the time I spend in the peace and quiet because


know how rarely I get to escape the chaos of everyday life.


As I think about our world today I take note of the problems sorrounding me. One problem that has drastically effected my life and the life


of every American is September 11, 001. The world now is full of fear and hatred. Wars in the middle east wage on even though we say things


like major combat operations are over. People are still dying, and with every death more hatred is spread. If our anonymous author was alive to


day he could tell us how to stop this neverending cycle. Unfortunately he has passes, but he wrote it down before he did. The solution is scattered


throughout Desiderata. If society was able to stop judging people and remove the different castes we put people in it would help tremendously


in uniting the country. We need the country to come closer together. People no longer trust each other. Blacks and whites seperate themselves.


Arabs and pretty much everyone seperate themselves. We need to unite and heal our wounds together. Another problem in our world today is


the conlficts caused by religion. Muslims attack Jews in Isreal, and Jews attack Muslims in Palestine. Catholics and Protestants clash in Ireland.


It has been the cause of many wars throughout history, but it could have all been avoided. The author acknowledges that people may have their


own God. If everyone had a personal relationship with God than we would all be members of a different religion. We would not be subject to the


prejudices of todays churches. We would accept other peoples views and respect them for it. Furthermore, members of society should take the


time to escape it all and find peace and solitude. Get away from the noise and confusion and escape to solitude. There society could really


reflect on themselves. See what is wrong with them and think of solutions to their own problems. Society could be much better but it takes a little


time and effort.





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Alcoholism


There is a very serious mental disorder that plagues many Americans. It’s called Alcoholism. Alcoholism is defined as the inability to abstain from the daily consumption of large amounts of alcohol. Some “alcoholics”, or people with alcoholism, can abstain from the use of alcohol for short periods of time but are unable to regulate their intake of alcohol once they begin again. These types of alcoholics are known as “binge” drinkers.


Alcoholism is usually caused by a person’s belief that they cannot deal with the pressures of life without alcohol. Alcoholics get drunk so that they do not feel the pain that come along with life. Once drinkers fall into a pattern of getting drunk to “feel better”, they can be diagnosed with alcoholism.


There are several key symptoms of alcoholism. They include a strong need or compulsion to drink, an inability to stop drinking once he or she has begun, and the need for increasing the amount of alcohol intake to get “high. Also, an alcoholic may experience withdrawal symptoms when they go without alcohol for short periods of time. Symptoms include nausea, sweating, shakiness, and anxiety.


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Men and women of all ethnic groups experience alcoholism. In ages 18-, around 7% of whites, 1% of African Americans, and 8% of Hispanics abuse alcohol. In ages 0-44, 6% of whites, 1% of African Americans, and 6% of Hispanics abuse Alcohol. In ages 45-64, 14% of Whites, % of African Americans, and 6% of Hispanics abuse alcohol. In people over 65, 14% of whites, % of African Americans, and 17% of Hispanics have alcohol problems.


There are a few treatments for alcoholics. There are rehabilitation clinics, medication, and support groups. The most famous treatment is the support groups Alcoholics Anonymous, or A.A. A.A. allows alcoholics to meet with other alcoholics to share stories, tell their progress with alcoholism, and encourage each other. A.A. often offers open discussion meetings, where men and women get in front of the group and share their experiences with alcohol. A.A. has proved the most effective of all the rehabilitation options.


Rehabilitation clinics offer an alcoholic a place to live while they go through alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Rehab clinics offer no alcohol to the person so that the alcoholic may deal with their symptoms without the use of alcohol.


Medications are being tested as a possible treatment for alcoholism. Some scientists believe that a chemical imbalance make people believe that they cannot live without alcohol, so the develop medication to try and correct the imbalance. There has been little success in developing medication that is very effective so this option isn’t the most popular.


Alcoholism is a very serious mental disorder but can be overcome with the right treatment.





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From long long times ago, novels have talked about love. Sometimes, it was easy, but unrealistic. Sometimes, it explained details about love, but it was hard and so various for me. However, from novel gLes Miserableh by victory Hugo, I could get some idea of love.


Jean Valjean is arrested by police, because he stole some bread. Hefs lived nineteen years for that, but he didnft reflect himself. Actually, in his situation, he has nowhere to go; because everyone thought him as a beggar. However, when he went to a church, a bishop warmly welcomed him. He gives a good food, and a very nice bed to sleep to Jean Valjean. It was incredibly nice to Jean Valjean, but when he woke up in the middle of night, he stole bishopfs silver-candlestick, and silver spoons.





Actually, in this situation, if I was bishop, I never could forgive him. Jean Valjean didnft give anything to bishop, but bishop gave him a lot. However, he even stole the bishopfs stuff after that. Hefs arrested again by police, and came back in front of bishop. In front of bishop, polices asked him whether Jean Valjean stole the candlestick or not. Jean Valjean couldnft watch bishopfs face. However, bishop said that he gave it to him, and Jean Valjean was innocent.


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I think the bishop had a condition to say that. It was an appointment for being new person. In fact, this appointment just change him different person, and bishopfs appointment finally makes chain of love. He grows Cosette, who is poor Fantinefs daughter.


The thing to help another person is not so big deal. But in the view of poor people; like French title gLes Miserableh, can be big help. As we saw in the novel Les Miserable, the form of love can make chain by giving the love to another person. Actually I got a love from my parents, and my parents said to me that they also got it from their parents. I may give same form of love to someone. Itfs continuing, so love is infinity. Les Miserable give me an idea of love in real life. Love is infinity, but the form is undefined. From now on, Ifll say definition of love like this, gLove is undefined infinity.h


Les Miserable


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A population can be defined as “a group of individuals of the same species inhabiting an area” (Enger & Smith, 00). Populations generally have certain defining characteristics that distinguish them from other populations. Theses include “natality (birthrate), mortality (death rate), sex ratio, age distribution, growth rates, density, and spatial distribution” (Enger & Smith, 00). The population of Newfoundland is, in this way, no different from any other. It has experienced many trends in population over the years, each trend having major societal impacts on the province.


In 1 and 1, the population of Newfoundland reached a record 580,00 people (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 00). Since then, the population has continually declined. On March 1, 00 Statistics Canada released the 001 Census Counts which indicated that since 16 the population of the province has declined by 7.0% (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 00). Nevertheless, population losses have become much smaller over the last three years corresponding to a stronger growth period in the provincial economy. The amount of out-migration, a major component of population change, has gone down in pervious years. This decrease is due to strong employment gains, wage growth and a general increase in consumer and business confidence. While these factors have caused out-migration to diminish, net losses are expected to continue in the near future (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 00).


Another major trend that is seen here in Newfoundland is a loss of natural population increase. Natural increase, the excess of births over deaths, was only around 150 persons in 001, the lowest natural population increase since Confederation. If this trend continues, it is believed that the province will soon see natural population losses. With low fertility rates, the number of children born per woman per lifetime, the number of births in the future will drop leaving the province with an aging population that will have increased death rates (Collins, 00).


If these two trends are combined (decreased number of births and more deaths) it is easy to see that the average age of the population will continue to rise. As stated in the text book, if the majority of the population is post reproductive, the population will decline (Enger & Smith, 00). This increase in age will be more apparent in the rural communities than in the urban communities of the province due to the smaller populations. As a result, the province’s population is expected to become more urban. If the province’s population becomes more urban it is easy to see that there will also be a shift in the need for both private and public services. An example of this sort of shift in need would be that the demand for recreational or educational services would decrease while the demand for health services would increase in the rural areas (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 00). With an increased trend in the province’s population age towards a post reproductive category, a reduction in the labour supply could come about in the future. In 001 the population of people ages 15 � 44 (Enger & Smith, 00), as know as the persons that have the potential to enter the labour force, out-numbered the potential retirees. But when looking at the current population trends for the province of Newfoundland, it is predicted that the potential retirees will out-number those that can enter the work force. This is good in some aspects because it will lower the unemployment rates, increase incomes and possibly decrease the out-migration and boost in-migration as the chances of gaining employment in this province are amplified.


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In recent years employers have noticed and are paying more attention to these trends. Many are making plans now and executing human resources strategies in preparation for future changes. Some companies such as the Iron Ore Company of Canada (IOCC) at Labrador City and industry associations such as the Alliance of Manufacturers and Exporters recognize the cumulative impacts of these factors and are implementing successor planning, mentorship programs and other recruitment actions (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 00). For example, up to 50% of the Iron Ore Company of Canada’s workforce is eligible for retirement by 004. In addressing this issue, IOCC is recruiting and training new workers to fill these vacant positions. In partnership with the College of the North Atlantic and its member unions, the company began a new apprentice training program in 1 which combines in-class training with on the job experience. This program, named Mining and Mineral Processing Technology, is seen as an innovative and meaningful way to prepare for demographic change and to train the mining employee of the future (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 00).


In conclusion, Newfoundland is facing a decline in population. The population is also becoming more centered in urban areas than in the past and is becoming an increasingly aging population. These factors have serious effects on the future work force and also place more burden on the health care system. By becoming aware of these trends now, measures can be taken to ensure the well-being of our population in the years to come as well as in future populations of this province.


References


Collins, Michael. Biology 041 Modern Biology and Human Society II. Topic 6 Lecture


Notes. (00). http//courses.mun.ca/biol041/contents/topic06_lecturenotes.html.


Enger, Eldon, Brad Smith. Environmental Science. New York McGraw-Hill, 00.


Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Provincial Economic Overview. (00).


http//economics.gov.nf.ca/E00/provincial.asp


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The greatest threat to the United States of America lies not in the weapons of mass destruction being harvested in poor countries such as Iraq, but in the arrogance of her own government. For a year following the attacks on September 11 001, the Bush administration has been making war-like speeches against countries such as Iraq, North Korea, and Pakistan concerning their ‘build up of weapons of mass destruction.’ Such threats are now nearing true as the crisis in Iraq continues.


The American government has adopted a no-tolerance approach to Iraq following UN inspectors’ entrance into Iraq on November 17. As this Iraqi show of compliance with the United Nations and the United States of America occurred the US simultaneously attacked Iraqi air defence targets. This is apparently in response to what the American military claimed were attempts to shoot down their planes. In attacking air defence targets the Bush administration is only taunting Iraq further at a time where the possibility for peaceful relations between Iraq and The US should be re-examined. Such anger provoking acts such as bombing a sovereign country’s air defence targets can only initiate further tension in an already tense situation.


The Iraqi decision to accept the UN into their borders clearly represents a break through in the situation, which many feared could only lead to war. The US administration however, continues to provoke Iraq arrogantly announcing that with or without UN support Iraqi president Suddan Hussiem will be disarmed if every detail of the UN resolution is not complied with. This only serves to further increase the resentment directed toward the US from not only Suddam Hussien’s regime, but also from the Iraqi people who feel violated by the US’s infringement upon their sovereignty. This is the population ravaged by war and oppression that the United States is supposedly attempting to ‘save’ and in doing so is disillusioning.


President Bush in verbalizing his questionable intentions to attack Iraq regardless of foreign support is reinstating the international opinion of the United States that she is a self serving nation with little to no consideration for the smaller nations in which the world is composed of. Actions, which reflect beliefs of superiority, are generally accepted with hostility by Middle Eastern nations who are already placed in a compromising situation concerning their loyalty. And it is precisely the Middle Eastern countries support, which is crucial to the US strong front against weapons of mass destruction. In alienating nations who may appear inferior, the Bush administration is in fact shooting itself in the foot concerning the success of the disarmament of Iraq, as the US relies greatly these nations approval of US infringement upon their air space.


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The verdict on whether, the United States of America will in fact get her war has yet to be seen. However, with the government behaving like a schoolyard bully, and foreign relations dwindling, not to mention a weakening economy, the United States of America does not require an attack of a nuclear bomb, to cause catastrophic damage to the country. The Bush administration is causing enough damage to the United States of America all on its own.





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Like Water for Chocolate


“Like Water for Chocolate” is a film about Tita, the youngest of sisters. Tita is forbidden to marry because of a longstanding family tradition. According to tradition, the youngest daughter is required to care for their mother until the day she dies. Tita, at first, accepts her fate until she falls in love with a man named Pedro. Tita rebels against her mother in hopes to be granted permission to marry Pedro. Her mother forbids it. Instead, her mother offers Rosita’s hand in marriage, Tita’s sister. Pedro accepts because he believes at least this way he will be able to live on the family ranch and be close to Tita, his true love. The rest of the story reveals Tita’s torment by the situation. Everyone on the ranch is aware of the love between Pedro and Tita. They must be careful showing their affection for one another. One way Tita expresses her emotions is through the seemingly magical food she prepares for the family.


In one scene Tita’s mother demands Tita be responsible for baking the cake for Rosita and Pedro’s wedding. While mixing the batter Tita cries and her tears fall into the mix. Then when the wedding party and guests eat the cake they burst into uncontrollable tears and begin vomiting. They feel the same sorrow and sickness as Tita. In a later scene Tita prepares a dinner using pedals from roses that were given to her by Pedro. When the family eats the meal they all become hot and sensual, except for Pedro’s wife who becomes ill. This is how Tita reaches out to Pedro, expressing her deepest desires. The director of the film also uses music in this scene to express the poetic nature of the food. After this Tita’s mother becomes even crueler.


In the years that follow Tita is treated more as a servant than as a daughter. She is forced to cook, clean, iron, and serve her mother has she sees fit. She is not shown any love from her mother and she feels that she will never be alone with her true love. Eventually this pressure drives her mad and she runs and hides in the dove cove. Her mother orders the ladder to be removed so she will be trapped. Like a bird in a cage, Tita was caged on the ranch. She was not well after this incident and was sent to stay with a doctor to help her become well again. With the help and patience of the doctor, Tita regained her senses. The doctor who had cared for her had fallen in love with her and he asked for her hand in marriage. Tita, believing she would never be with her true love, accepted and promised she would never return to the ranch. However, her promise would not be kept for long.


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A band of rebels attacked the ranch and killed Tita’s mother. Tita returned to burry her mother and to care for the ranch. There, she was back in the same difficult situation that previously tore at her emotions. Once again she was near her true love but could not express her love because he was married to her sister. On top of that, she was now engaged to another man. Her turmoil was heightened even further when she and Pedro slipped into hiding and made love. After this several events led to a dramatic conclusion.


Tita’s sister Rosita, Pedro’s wife, dies due to complications with her digestive system. Tita also broke off her engagement with the doctor, confessed her love for Pedro. The doctor, realizing he could never have Tita as his wife, let her go. Now, with her mother and her sister passed away, and the doctor gone, Tita and Pedro are alone together at last. Pedro takes Tita to a room lit by hundreds of candles. For the first time they can be intimate with each other without hiding in the shadows. At the peak of Pedro’s sexual experience, when he feels most complete, all of his emotions are experienced at the same time. Just as the doctor had once told Tita, all of the matches inside Pedro were lit at once and then Pedro died. Tita then takes her own life by ingesting a book of matches so she can continue to be with him. The lovers reunite in eternity.


The film places a great symbolic nature on food. All throughout the film, food is used to express the emotions of the characters. Tita’s great-niece who is reading from an old family cookbook is actually telling the story. Novel from which the film is based is set up like a cookbook. It offers 1 recipes, one for each month of the year. It was from this book that I found the meaning of the title “Like Water for Chocolate.” The author of the book offers a recipe for making hot chocolate


Heat a square of chocolate in water. When the water comes to a boil for the first time, remove it from the heat, and dissolve the chocolate completely; beat with a chocolate?mill until it is smoothly blended with the water. Return the pan to the stove. When it comes to a boil again and starts to boil over, remove it from the heat. Put it back on the heat and bring to a boil a third time. Remove from the heat and beat the chocolate. Pour half into a pitcher and beat the rest of it some more. Then serve it all, leaving the top covered with foam. Hot chocolate can also be made using milk instead of water, but in this case, it should only be brought to a boil once, and the second time its heated it should be beaten so it doesnt get too thick. However, hot chocolate made with water is more digestible than that made with milk.


Tita is like the “water” for chocolate. She simmers on a burner at the ranch only to be beaten down by her mother. Then she simmers some more and her mother beats her down again. However, this process only makes her sweet and ever more desirable for her one true love.





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By todays standards, Harriet Beecher Stowes book, Uncle Toms Cabin would seem quaint and antiquated, if viewed merely on its surface. But, a deeper look reveals and in-depth look into the lives of a people whose courageous spirits soared far and above circumstance and time. No American of any so-called racial group should be exempt from reading this timeless expose into the ruthless heartlessness of slavery. Those who merely wish to know the customs and language of the time period will appreciate that aspect, while lovers of history in and of itself would enjoy this excellent portrayal of the mores and political climate of the times. Christians will rejoice in its examples of the good-heartedness of those who opposed slaverys maltreatment of Gods children, while the philosopher will ponder and fully embrace the books true portrayal of Uncle Tom, not as the much maligned boot licker, but as a fine example of a persevering Christlike figure, with enough inner strength to stand up against even the threat of death to defend what he knows to be right and to non-violently reject what he knows to be categorically wrong.


Perhaps the greatest character portrayed within the book is that is Topsy, the slave child who has been mistreated and belittled so harshly that she has become incapable of even viewing herself as good. Having come from an environment in which she is daily beaten and starved, she comes into the St. Claire household, incorrigible, constantly into mischief and frequently the focus of negative attention. It is through her own surprisingly insightful comments that the true heart of the matter lies. Many of those who object to slavery in their intellect, still embrace it in their perceptions and daily lives. Indeed, the generational curse of deep seated, unadmitted hatred of Topsy is alive and well and living within many of our hearts even today, regardless of our own heritage.


Ms. Stowes novel calls to each of us and what it calls us is something with an ugly core which we might do well to unearth and then give it a proper burial. Do yourself a favor and read this book.


xxx


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The Part of this poem that is to be looked at first is imagery in the title of the poem. Shamus Heaney starts us off by giving us this picture of the Strand at Lough Beg, which is the shore of a lake. Already the reader is given the starting point of this story; the Kind of person that Colum McCartney is. Shamus Heaney begins the poem with an image of isolation, confusion, and the loss of safety. Heaney describes what happen the night that his cousin was killed Leaving the white glow of the filling stations. And a few lonely street lamps among the fields. You climbed the hills towards Newtownhamilton Past the Fews Forest. Out beneath the stars- (lines 1-4). The first few lines describe how his cousin started out in the glow of the gas station where he was, and him driving off to an open area in a town with the stars above him. The light here represented safety. Colum has started off in a situation where he was very close to this light where there was, most likely, a store and other people. After he is done at the gas station he then drives away. Heaney gives us the image of the lampposts passing by as he drove. This shows how the light was now outside of where he was but it was still with him. Finally he drives up to Newtownhamilton, passing some forests on the way and place where the only light that he is exposed to is the stars that are shining down at him from the sky. This now represents how the imminent safety that he had at the public gas station was now gone and he was isolated, in these hills only lit by stars. The safety in the light is now, far way leaving him exposed to anything “outside”.


The image of the first few lines is of Colum now isolated, surrounded by silence, and open to the dangers they may be lurking. The succeeding lines are expressed through historical imagery. Along that road, a high, bare pilgrim’s track Where Sweeney fled before the bloodied heads. Goat beards and dogs eyes in a demon pack Blazing out of the ground snapping and squealing. (Lines 5-8) In these few lines we are given this image of his cousin now driving down an isolated road. Heaney then bestows us with the gruesome image of these bloodied heads and animals referring to the story of Sweeney. This new character that Heaney intimated us to, Sweeney, is an Irish king (around 1000AD) who was titled as a madman for savagely killing a saint. The incentive behind the use of Sweeney was to give the reader the idea that this road is dangerous of that something bad is going to happen. Even though the image of “Goat beards and dogs eyes in a demon pack / Blazing out of the ground snapping and Squealing” is quite appalling and startling, Heaney adds this in order to give the reader a feeling of the unreal, world and that what is happening, really shouldn’t be. “Blazing out of the ground snapping and squealing” represents how he thought the killers had approached his cousin in a surprise and unexpected mode. There is a sense of his whole world being intruded upon. It is now, in the middle of the first stanza, which we know that Shamus Heaney, himself, is not sure of what really happened that night. This is evident by the way he questions what he says is happening. What blazed ahead of you? A faked roadblock? The red lamp swung, the sudden brakes and stalling Engine, voices, heads hooded and the cold nosed gun? Or in your driving mirror tailing headlights that pulled out suddenly and flagged you down where you weren’t known and far from what you knew.


The lowland clays and waters of Lough Beg. Church Island’s spire its soft treeline of yew [Lines -16] Here he uses present imagery to describe what happened, and to make it seem more possible. Again, I think, he uses analogies to light to represent the level of safety around his cousin while this was going on. In line ten, he applies the image of a “red lamp” swinging. In the beginning of the poem we had the image of a white light in our minds, which represented goodness, and purity, but now we have a drastic transition to a red light, which gives us more of a sharp and “warning” sense around him. From these lines we also, now, get the audio connection of what is happening. In line ten and eleven all what he describes is through what Colum must of heard when he made that abrupt stop. This effect makes it even more horrifying because his Colum could probably sense what was going on and that he was in trouble. The description of the cold nose gun moreover makes it seem even more a brutal crime because it makes the killing seem more planned because the gun had still not been fired, as if the gun itself was waiting for him to come. In these lines we are taken back to the feeling of safety when Heaney says how Colum wasn’t in familiar territory he was in hostile, protestant territory instead of Catholic. In referring to Lough Beg it implies that Colum’s land was peaceful and that there wasn’t any feeling of insecurity when you were there. In addition, he mentions that there is a Church near Lough Beg, giving the reader the sense that Lough Beg was a place to be considered close to sanctuary.


The poem takes a turn in the third stanza, and Heaney talks about the way that his cousin lived. Importantly, he also describes his cousin’s nature and outlook on what was going on between the Protestants and Catholics. There you use to hear guns fired behind the house Long before rising time, when duck shooters Haunted the marigolds and bulrushes, But still were Scared to find spent cartridges, Acrid, brassy, genital, ejected, On your way across the strand to fetch the cows [Lines 17-] In these lines Heaney describes he lands that Colum lived on and the way he was effected by little things. For example, the fact that the firing of duck shooters scared him as a grown war reflected either how bad the war was (that every loud nose disturbed him and just reminded him of what was going on) or that he was so innocuous, like a child, that he couldn’t make sense of what was happening around him. In this case, the reason behind his fear is combination of both these possibilities. I think that when Colum sees these cartridges of bullets he was get reminded of what was happening around him and showed that he feared war he was anti-war. For you and yours and yours and mine fought shy, Spoke an old language of conspirators and could not crack the whip or seize the day Big voiced scullions, herders, feelers round Haycocks and hindquarters, talkers in byres. Slow arbitrators of the burial ground. These few lines support the idea of him being innocent because he was a shy and timid person, not aggressive. He lived on a farm and was simple, he was not like the rest of the people who were always stressed about the problems they may have had; he was more laid back and satisfied. This stanza was to show how Colum McCartney didn’t fit into the war picture and gave more reason towards how unnecessary his death was because he was neutral and wanted nothing to do with that war scene.


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In the third, and last stanza of the poem Shamus Heaney now brings into the poem, his own imagination and thoughts. He tells us the way he believes a person should be buried and what the experience of his cousin’s death was like for him. “Across that strand of yours the cattle graze Up to their bellies in an early mist And now they turn their unbewildered gaze To where we work our way through speaking sedge The beginning of the third stanza suggests that it might be a continuation of the second because it describes, still, the environment that Colum lived in. I think that it was important that Heaney uses the farm animal the cow, in this poem. Out of all farm animals, cows would be most like the character of Colum. Cows are quiet and don’t do anything to anyone, yet they are eventually killed for no good reason just how Colum McCartney was killed. Furthermore, the cows show how even they sense that the environment is not safe and that there is something wrong they know what is happening. The image of the mist is almost used as a way of transitioning from the environment of Colum, into the thoughts of Heaney. “Drowning in dew. Like a dull blade with its edge Honed bright. Lough Beg half-shines under the haze.” I turn because the sweeping of your feet Has stopped behind me, to find you on your knees With blood and roadside muck in your hair and eyes, Then kneel in front of you in brimming grass In these lines Shamus Heaney discusses how he feels his relation ship with Colum was, and how it abruptly terminated. It is important that Heaney portrays the image of him and his cousin walking by the lake, to the viewer, in order to express how they had a good relationship because the lake represents safety [“Honed bright.”] and positive feelings. Then he goes on to talk about this abrupt termination of his relationship by saying “because the sweeping of your feet / Has stopped behind me.” Even though, in his description on how he believed things should have been, he describes Colum as bloody and dying at his knees, perhaps praying he wont die, this exhibits how drastically Heaney wished he could have at least seen his cousin before he died. On account of his cousin being killed in the middle of hostile territory, the chances were that Shamus Heaney never recovered Colum McCartney’s body. And gather up cold handfuls of the dew to wash you. Cousin. I dab you clean with moss Fine as the drizzle out of a low cloud. I lift you under the arms and lay you flat. With rushes that shoot green again. I plait Green scapulars to wear over your shroud. [Lines -44] In these six lines Heaney describes the way Colum should of been buried. The way Heaney describes this cleansing of the body and clothing it was depicted in a very ritualistic and loving way. It showed how important it was to Heaney that his cousin was buried correctly and humanely. Shamus Heaney’s The Strand at Lough Beg describes Colum McCartney’s death in three different ways The way he might have died, why he shouldn’t have died, and the way he should have been put to rest. It is important to notice how Heaney doesn’t mention, once, any vindictive hatred towards the killers but instead focuses on love and an undying respect for the dead. The poem starts out with a tempestuous seen, that connects to all the readers senses and introduces us to the scene of his death. However, the poem develops into a loving and heartbreaking eulogy to Colum McCartney, through Heaney’s expression of light, mystery, change, and way of living.





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