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participative management


11 Silver Prayaas


Leadership is one of the most


observed and least understood


Buy cheap participative management term paper




phenomenon on earth. Burns (178)


remarks. The problem arises not only


in understanding the operation of the


theory but even in its definition


Leadership is a complex and


multifaceted phenomenon to which


organizational and psychological


research has been applied.


A macro-level comparison of


business organizations in India vis-a


vis those of successful countries like


Japan, America, Germany, France


and Korea provide certain interesting


information. Physical and human


resource-wise comparison indicates


that there may not be yawning gaps


between Indian organizations and


the organization of the countries cited


above. While these countries have


developed management styles in


consonance with their cultural ethos,


Leadership in organizations


An Indian perspective


S W DESHPANDE


A number of theories and models have been proposed of leadership in organisations by


western theorists. These theories have worked well in those countries since they have been


developed keeping in view, the cultural context. These models may be good there but they


prove to be some what inadequate in the Indian cultural context. Indian organisations


cannot forget that their leadership models come from their socio culture. Indian cultural


is so accommodative that it welcomes noble thought coming from all over the world. The


author has developed a leadership model which would befit Indian organisations. The


model ‘EAST MEETS WEST’ could satisfy the needs of the Indian corporate world.


Indian management experts had no


choice but to depend on western


perspectives because of the absence


of a local database and theoretical


framework.


Leadership theory began as a one


dimensional, internal and


individualistic process in which only


a leader ’s personality traits or


behaviors were considered.


Situational elements, external to the


leader-member dyad were


subsequently added to the leadership


equations as well as an


acknowledgement of group


processes. An important new growth


stage was reached in the contingency


era as leadership theory evolved from


unidimensional to the


multidimensional arena. Here the


interaction of the leader,


subordinates and the situation all


became important in explaining


leadership. Leadership theory was


further advanced when the focus


changed from leadership being


primarily a top-down process to


much more of a bottom-up process.


Situational and non- leadership


factors were considered again but


this time from an integrative


perspective. The culture era built on


the situational factors, which


extended the scope of leadership


from group interactions to the


interactions of the entire


organization, affected by the persons


involved, their situations and their


influences on each other. King (10)


has summarized the major leadership


eras and periods, which are


presented in Table 1.


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March 00 11


Table 1 Evolutionary Stages of Leadership Theory


Personality Era Transactional Era


- Great Man Period - Exchange period


- Trait Period - Role Development Period


Influence Era Anti-Leadership Era


- Power Relation Period - Ambiguity Period


- Persuasion Period - Substitute Period


Behavior Era Culture Era


-Early Behavior Period - Transformation Era


-Late Behavior Period - Charisma Period


-Operant Period - Self- fulfilling


Contingency Era


In India the studies on leadership


began in the mid 50s. There are two


definite trends in the studies, the first


one are the studies done by Indian


researchers following the western


models, ignoring the Indian cultural


characteristics and the second are the


studies conducted by the American


organizational behavioral scientists


visiting management institutes in


India in the 60s and opined on the


basis of a limited data. Both the types


of studies have their limitations in the


sense that they have presented a lopsided


view of leadership of the Indian


organizations.


In the first type, we may include the


study by Ganguly (177) who has


surveyed a large number of


managers from a variety of


organizations and concluded that


that there was an interactive effect of


the leadership styles and the


organizational climate. Leaders


tended to use the benevolent


autocratic style but shifted to the


consultative style in organizations,


which have a participative work


climate. Prior to this, Pendse (165)


had done his doctoral work on


consultative style of leadership and


suggested that this worked very


effectively with the rural folk. The


second type of studies projected


authoritarian features on Indians.


Mead has opined that Indian


subordinates need authoritarian


leaders. Empirical studies (Hofstede,


176, 188) comparing values


across a number of countries have


clearly indicated the existing cultural


differences. Hofstede observed that


Americans score high on recognition


and achievement and low on


conformity, whereas Asians scored


high on conformity and orderliness


but low on independence Sinha


(17) has questioned the validity of


the assumption that Indians are


authoritarian in the sense defined by


Adorno et al (150). One of the


typical Indian cultural characteristics


is tolerance, which does not go with


the authoritarian personality.


Leadership styles and the


management processes in India


unfortunately appear to be a queer


cocktail without any unique and


distinctive focus of its own. Right from


the start, from the post independence


phase of development, not adequate


and serious grass-root efforts were


made to evolve leadership styles and


management processes that are true


to Indian ethos and culture and this


ethos itself has not sufficiently been


understood in its real spirit. The


educated Indians appear to be


Indianising management,


considering the Indian culture to be


feudalistic and backward. There are


many cultural values shared by both


Japan and India for example, respect


for the head of the family,


hierarchical relationship, seniority


and age. However, in India it is these


very features, which are made the


principal target of attack by the


Indian elite.


In the ‘80s two indigenous theories


of leadership came into prominence.


The first one is by J.B.P. Sinha who


advocated the Nurturant Task (NT)


style of leadership. This theory follows


a contingency approach in the sense


that the Nurturant - Task leader is


postulated to be effective only for


those subordinates who prefer


dependency and a personalized


relationship, are status conscious and


perform work as a part of a


relationship. Although, majority of


Indian subordinates do share these


cultural characteristics, there may be


enough subordinates who are


independent-minded, prefer


autonomy and want to work without


close supervision. Such subordinates


work more effectively under a


participative leader. In fact, the theory


postulates a broad developmental


continuum from the authoritarian


through NT to participative


leadership styles. This model of


leadership is presented in Figure 1.


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114 Silver Prayaas


The Indigenous Theories


• The Nurturant Task (TN) Style of Leadership (J.


B. P. Sinha)


A Model of Effective Leadership


F NT Nt/p P


Autonomous Group


S S1 S S


t t1 t t ti


(Notes F authoritarian; nt/p combination of nurturant task; P participative


leaders; S subordinates; t time point; solid lines positive relationship;


broken line negative relationship; arrow direction of relations.)


Figure 1. A model of effective leadership (J.B.P.Sinha, 18)


S1 is the Telling Style, S is the Selling


Style, S is the Participative Style and


S4 is the Delegating Style. Hersey


and Blanchard proposed these four


leadership styles in their Life Cycle


theory of leadership (16). t1, t


and t denote the periods in the life


span referring to the maturity levels


of the subordinates.


The next is The Pioneering-Innovative


(PI) style of leadership (Khandwala,


18). The NT style of leadership


proposed by Sinha is more


appropriate for the middle level


managers whose main function is to


manage human relations.


Khandwalla has contended that a


leader has to be pioneering and


innovative. The PI style is


characterized by commitment to


pioneering, novel and sophisticated


technologies, products and services,


high risk taking and strong emphasis


on creativity and adaptability.


Following liberalization of economics


of the developing countries in Asia,


the PI style is likely to receive greater


attention.


Despite Khandwalla’s claim, the Pi


leadership does not seem to include


the typical Indian ethos of affection,


nurturance, care, consideration,


preference for dependency and


personalized relationship,


hierarchical orientation. The cultural


ethos is reflected in the Singh and


Bhandarkar’s (10) formulation of


transformational leadership. They


have tried to find the roots of Indian


leadership in the Indian family.


A close examination of the


functioning of business organizations


in India indicates that not only do we


import leadership styles and


management systems, but even


compare this error by changing them


in faddist fashion. Such an approach


invariably leads to cynical reactions


like branding leadership styles of


management systems as new


gimmicks emerging from academic


ivory towers. Moreover many


companies feel nonplussed by the


surefire management success


formulae from Harvard, Oxford or


Tokyo. Rather than blindly adopting


the leadership styles and the


management systems, we would be


better off if we were to make the


change at the root itself � evolve


culturally consistent and relevant


leadership styles.


Indian culture, being probably the


only unbroken culture in the world,


has both kinds of processes Those


that can help change and those that


hinder change (development). A


better understanding of these


processes may help us to use them


for planning.


Positive forces in the Indian culture


include high extension motivation


(concern for others), as reflected in


the patriotic traditions, and respect


for others as reflected in the


welcoming different ideas, people


openness; synthesis, respect for


knowledge etc.


The following processes in Indian


culture are shown in Table


Table Processes in the Indian


Culture


1. Dependency motive,


generating -


a) Avoidance syndrome (not


taking initiative, not


taking responsibility,


exaggerating obstacles)


b) Excessive fear of failure


and risk avoidance


c) Over conformism


d) Favor seeking


. Casteism, generating -


a) Difficulty to relate to peer


level


b) Dependency relationship


as contrasted with


interdependence


c) Role fixation


d) Self rejection resulting


because of role fixation


. Fatalism, generating -


a) Cynicism (Nothing good


The Indigenous Theories


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March 00 115


can come out)


b) Lack of self critical self


examination (Low


personal block)


4. Non-involvement and


noncommitment -(feeling of joy


after success and feeling of


sadness after failure)


a) Non-conforming


behavior


b) Excessive tolerance


5. Individualism, generating -


a) Lack of interpersonal trust


b) Difficulties


in collaboration


6. Irreality orientation, generating


�(may be due to Upanishadic


teaching that everything is


MAYA - unveil)


a) Symbol infatuation


b) Fantasy directedness


c) Difficulty in anticipating


problems and values


Singh and Bhandarkar (10)


have listed some components


of Indian culture. They are


presented in Table .


Table Components of Indian


Culture


 Karta


 Relationships


 Respect for elders


 Proximity to Power


 Hierarchy


 Security


 Simple Living and High


Thinking


 Psychology of Entitlement and


over � emphasis on Reward


The first component is the institution


of KARTA. The immense authority and


power characterize the Karta or the


head of the house. Besides, since the


Hindu family is largely a patriarchal


institution, the father is the most


omnipotent in the family. The ‘Karta’


experience is amongst the earliest


and strongest socialization


experiences of the Indian child. It is


nurturing, caring, dependable,


sacrificing, yet demanding


authoritative and strict dimension of


the father (or figure head of the


house) which the individual learns to


value for in life. By behavior and style,


the Karta normally evokes a feeling


of security, trust and dependability.


As a result of this cumulative


experience, a father is what the


individual looks for symbolically in


the workplace, for empowering and


protection. In return the individual


develops respect and reverence for


his superior and demonstrates


willingness to respect his authority.


When the individual joins work with


his set of expectations, he can be


faced with two kinds of situations. He


either has a superior who, by and


large, meets his demands or he finds


that the superior is very low on ‘Karta


� like’ traits, there is meaningful and


purposeful superior � subordinate


relationship. The superior also finds


that he can easily build a cohesive


team, with the subordinates having


respect for his authority. On the other


hand, when the superior fails to


satisfy the “Karta image” expectations


, these very positive behaviors may


easily turn negative. In the extreme


case, there will be non-acceptance


for the superior’s formal authority.


Relationship is the next important


component of the Indian culture. This


is the result of the extended


childhood, which characterizes the


Indian family system, compared to


the shorter childhood, which children


experience in the western system of


child rearing. The individual comes


to the work place and brings with him


a strong need to relate with others.


When organizational culture is not


Dr. S.W. Deshpande has


done his post graduation in


arts and is a consultant,


Trainer and Teacher. He was


the Head of Dept. of


Psychology in the University


of Pune from 15 July to


17. He was also the


Programme Director of


Sinhgad Institute of Business


Administration Pune. He has


presented various papers on


management in National


and International journals


and has attended


International Conferences


in management in Dublin,


Sharjah and Dubai. He was


the King Edward Memorial


Scholar from 15 to 161.


He was also the President of


the Marathi Manasshastra


Parishad and the Chairman


of the Board of Studies in


Psychology and Member of


the Academic Council of


SNDT University, Mumbai.


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116 Silver Prayaas


depersonalized , relatedness releases


positive energies like empathy,


intimacy, togetherness, we-feeling


etc. When the organization culture


is characterized by impersonality,


formal role-relationship, individual


experiences a sense of deprivation


of intimacy. Work wise, there is poor


team spirit leading to poor


performance, especially where


people with different group


orientations have to work together as


a team.


Proximity to power The ethos of the


joint family system with its heavy


accent on Karta experiences,


generates a unique psychological


response in the individual. The


experienced powerlessness ( to act


independently) and dependency in


childhood and adolescence result in


placing a high value on the power


as well as need to choose this power


source.


In the workplace the person has


similar expectation from the superior


who is looked up as a powerful


person. There can be too many


expectations, and excessive


dependence upon the authority


figure. At the work level, this would


mean that there is no independent


decision making, thus killing


individual capacity to take risk and


initiative to be innovative and


creative.


Blake and Mouton (15), borrowing


two dimensions form classical


American studies, developed a


Managerial grid. The two dimensions


were concern for task and concern


for people. They highlighted five


leadership styles in the managerial


grid, which is presented in Fig. .


Fig Managerial Grid


THE GRID


(Blake & Mouton)


,1 1,1


,5 ,5


5, 5, High


1 4 5 6 7 8


Low Concern for production High


1,


Thoughtful attention to needs


for satisfying relationships


leads to a comfortable,


friendly organisation


atmosphere & work tempo.


,


Work accomplishment is


from committed people.


Interdependence through a


“common stake” in


organisation purpose leads to


relationships of trust &


respect.


Exertion of minimum effort


to get work done is


appropriate to sustain


organisation membership.


Efficiency in operations


results from arranging


conditions of work in such a


way that human elements


interfere to a minimum


degree. 1


Low


8


Concern for people


6


5


4


5,5


Adequate organisation performance is


possible through balancing the necessity to


get out work with maintaining morale of


people at a satisfactory level.


7


The present investigator is attracted


to the managerial grid.


In order to evolve culturally consistent


(not accept) them. If these noble


thoughts were culturally relevant, we


would surely assimilate them.


If we see the components of Indian


culture, an individual at the


workplace expects a boss who is


powerful but at the same time


sympathetic, caring and also


providing security to the employee.


He should be like


As strong and hard as the sword but


as delicate and soft as a flower. A


East Meets West


(DESHPANDE, 17)


.1 .1 1.1 1.1


.5 .5 5.5 5.5


. . 5. 5. 1. 1.


Concern for productivity


Concern for people


CONSULTATIVE


TYPE


BENEVOLENT


AUTOCRAT


Benevolent Autocrat


Indicators


•Decisive / shows initiative


•Finisher / committed


•Evaluative of quality, quantity,


time


•Costs, profits & sales-conscious


•Both develops & proposes new


ideas


•Shows that efficiency &


productivity are valued


•Industrious / energetic


•Obtains results


and relevant leadership styles, one


has to carefully consider the


components of Indian culture. It is


also necessary to see that there are


culturally relevant models of


leadership prevailing in the western


countries, which proved the test of


time. Our teaching of Upanishadas


have widened our horizon to


welcome whatever good is there in


any part of the world


Let all the noble thoughts come from


all over the world, we would welcome


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March 00 117


who become mature, responsible


and also committed to the


organization. For such employees


5. style � CONSUlTATIVE TYPE


would be more relevant (Figure.).


There is a difference between this


style and American participative style.


In the latter, the decisions are arrived


at through discussions wherein each


member participates. Every member


has a role to play in the decisionmaking.


In the consultative style, the


boss, leader, or the powerful person


discusses with the other individuals


in the group, consults them but he is


the decision maker. This style is


recommended for the higher level


subordinates. As the Indian teaching


goes


REFERENCES


1) King, A.S. (10) Evolution of Leadership Theory Vikalja Vol 15(), 4-54


) Singh, P and Bhandarkar, A (18) Transformational leaders- A Study of their leadership profile Public Enterprises


Vol , Nos. -4


) Pendse V.V. (165) Consultative Type of Leadership, Unpublished P. Hd. Thesis Submitted to University of Pune


4) Singh, P and Bhandarkar (18) From Cultural Ethos to organizational milieu, In Management in Govt published


by ISTD, New Delhi.


5) Sinha JBP (18) Indian Perspectives on Leadership and Power in organizations. In social behavior and personality


edited by Janale Pande Allahabad.


6) Burns, J M (178) Leadership, New York Harper and Row


7) Blake, R. R. Morton J.S. (166) The Managerial Grid “ Management Facades” Advance Management Journal


8) Chemers, M.N. (000) Leadership research and theory A functional integration group dynamics, Theory Research


and practice Vol 4, No 1, 7-4


) Humphreys , J.H. (001) Transformational and Transactional Leader Behavior Journal of management Research


Vol 1 No 148-156


10) Dhar, V Mishra, P (001) Leadership effectiveness Journal of Management Research Vol 1 No 4 55-66


11) Adorno, T.W. Frenkel-Brunswik, Else, Levinson, D.J. & Sanford, R.N. (150) The Authoritarian personality, New


York, Harper


Leadership is action, not position


- D. H. Mc Gannon


combination of these two we shall


find in our boss. A .5 style in the


managerial grid would be relevant


one. This is a BENEVOLENT


AUTOCRAT. The characteristic of a


benevolent autocrat are given in


Figure. below.


The father figure (KARTA) is


transferred to the workplace. The


employee derives satisfaction in such


an organizational setup where the


boss is strict but soft and considerate


when the occasion demands. This


leadership style is applicable to the


lower level subordinates who are


dependency prone, doing almost


routine type of work.


As the employees become


experienced there could be some


àmßV{fw [m{Se{ df} [w̧ o_Ì dXmMa{V²


From the age of 16 the father should


treat his son as his friend. At the


workplace also task orientation is not


the prime concern of this style. The


employees are responsible mature


and dedicated. Self-esteem should


be well protected by the boss, butthe


task orientation should not be


totally ignored.


The present author puts forth a


continuum of the maturity of the


subordinates and recommends the


benevolent autocrat style at the lower


and the consultative style at the upper


level of the maturity continuum.


These are the culturally consistent


and relevant leadership styles for


Indian organizations.





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