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Culture is Symbolic


Culture learning is based on the unique human capacity to use symbols (sign that have no necessary or natural connection to the things they stand for). A symbol is something verbal or nonverbal, in a language or culture that comes to stand for something else. Like in my culture when we hear dog barking at middle of night, like two three nights one by one, we guess something will be happen bad. In addition, when we see a yellow feather birds behind the house, we guess may be guest could come. Sometime that’s comes true. Same as when we comb the hair and if comb fall on the ground, we thing some one could come to house. Also when someone go to town or to do something good like business and if he or she see someone washing their pots in the ponds, he thinks that today’s business will go bad. Actually, I do not know those symbols are true or false, but peoples are follow them. In the book, it says holy water is an important symbol for Roman Catholicism, which is an international cultural system. A natural thing has come to have a special meaning for Catholics. Same thing we have holly water in Makka (part of country Saudi Arab in Middle East) that Muslim people go there and drink that water and wish something good. Also bring that water from Makka to drink everybody. This holly water is international symbol of holiness for Muslim people and all the Muslim people around the world drink that water as a symbol of holiness. So symbol is something we learn from our culture and from our religion.







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What techniques are used by Moore in Bowling For Columbine?


Moore has used a countless number of techniques in his documentary to manipulate the viewer to accept certain facts and reject others.


Moore uses interviews with authoritive and important people throughout the documentary to position the viewer to feel a certain way. These include an interview with the surprisingly articulate and opiniotive Manson, who seems to raise some valid points, therefore positioning the viewer to reject the fact that Marilyn Manson’s music has created “teenage monsters” such as the boys who went on a rampage at Columbine high school.


Controversial footage of the gunmen is used as they patrol their own school with rifles. This footage brings an emotional response from the viewer, and encourages the viewer to look for answers to how something like this could happen. Giving Moore the opportunity to somewhat “brainwash” the viewer.


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The central problem of why do Americans kill each other at such a high rate, is another technique used by Moore. This technique keeps the audience engaged because they want to find the answer. Interestingly in the end Moore doesn’t really have a solid answer.


Michael Moore is the focaliser in Bowling For Columbine as he is in all of his documentaries. By creating himself as this character, he personalises the situation with the audience.


Conflict is a documentary technique used by Moore. However Moore struggles to make a solid conflict with anybody in particular. There is Charlton Heston and various other characters that we disagree with throughout the documentary but there is no central antagonist, or villain.


As he does in all his documentaries, Moore uses the archetypal narrative. The underdog vs. the foe, such as the time he and students take on K-Mart and win. The viewer is encouraged to side with the underdog, because he is supposedly acting on behalf of everything that is “good”.


Editing is a controversial tool used by Moore to manipulate the viewers into believing certain things, which may have been taken out of context. Examples of this include the Lockheed-Martin and Nuclear Missiles, which were actually only satellites.


Much of the NRA criticism was unfair on behalf of the NRA for a number of reasons. Firstly, Charlton Heston has been diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. The NRA has over 4 million members and meetings are planned years in advanced. As the NRA holds their annual meetings they generally have days of entertainment including luncheons and dinners, shoot outs and other activities, these were all cancelled in light of the shooting tragedies.


There are many other examples of Moore manipulating the footage in this way. By doing this he creates a certain image in the audiences mind, which may be misleading such as his criticism of the NRA.





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Inlay from “White Pony” by Deftones


Deftones are a 5 piece rock group originating from Sacramento, California. Consisting of Chino Moreno (vocals, guitars), Stephen Carpenter (guitars), Chi Cheng (bass, vocals), Abe Cunningham (drums) and Frank Delegado (turntables) they fuse together a blend of high octane metal and emotional hardcore resulting in a unique signature style all of their own. To date they have released three albums Adrenaline, Around the Fur, White Pony (from which this inlay is taken) with a new self titled album being released soon. They tend to focus on themes relating to love and relationships, friendship and human nature. Coming from a large city but having deep roots within family and regarding friendship as very important they have a sense of grounded balance to their musical output. Whilst the lyrics are at some times ambiguous they never fail to be powerful and aggressive and always convey the point in a forceful manner.


The double image shown is in fact two separate 1 x 1 cm compositions, so I will analyse each separately and relate at the end of this analysis. The panel on the left features Chino Moreno, eyes blocked with a crude black mark, his hand covering his mouth. Personally, I feel this is trying to convey disguise; it is as if he is hiding from what he is seeing all around him, his hand stopping him from commenting. This creates a sense of powerlessness and desperation as he cannot physically express what he needs to. Text is used creatively and frequently. “Deftones” is sprawling up the right hand side, obscured by Chino’s figure. The use of layering and partial words again conveys the sense of not being able to fully express something. The interesting angle of the lettering on the left hand side adds an obscure perspective which makes the piece fragile, especially as a variety of effects have been used to metamorphose the text, including the Chinese symbols. In addition, the structure has tried to be restated through what looks like scaffolding in the top left hand corner. Although it is very faint, there is a paragraph of text placed underneath the rest of the composition. It is only really apparent towards the bottom but this emergence of text suggests the revealing of a message. We may not be able to actually decipher it but it symbolises that the message of the piece (and the music) lies buried within a more bold statement.


The right hand panel seems less convoluted in its presentation but is just as ambiguous in its meaning. Again the theme of disguise is reiterated through the standing figure of Chino Moreno. The top of his face is not seen so we cannot see his expression, at least not through his eyes. A phrase that strikes me whilst looking at this piece is “see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil”. If his eyes are always blocked he cannot see what is around him and with his hand covering his mouth he cannot be heard. The contrasting element of “visual noise” within the piece is fascinating. As the piece on the left is crowded it could be defined as noisy, but the piece on the right has an eerie calm and silence about it as it is full of large areas of texture. Chino’s figure is static and looks expressionless; this is expressed through the numbers at the bottom. It is as if he is void of feeling, he can be symbolised through something as lifeless as a number, or rather the artist is simply reflecting the emotionally void world that surrounds him. The background structure is interesting, it seems very vertical but the texture of it evolves as it moves from side to side. The sprawling lines seem somewhat aggressive as they have a disregard for the structure beneath them.


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Together the pieces create a contrasting sense of light and dark but they both seem to have a sense of promoting the music and the band without necessary promoting themselves as individuals. This is stated through the repeated use of “deftones” and the hidden faces in the two pieces.





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If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on biography Mori. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality biography Mori paper right on time.

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Biography


A Japanese American poet, novelist, and nonfiction writer, Mori was raised in Kobe, Japan, and inspired by her mother and grandfather, began to write in both Japanese and English at an early age. These two people in my family gave her the idea that writing was something we did everyday or even every week with enjoyment. As a young girl, she learned numerous ways to be creative, including drawing, sewing, and writing, from her mother and her mother’s family. From those family members, Mori says “I came to understand the magic of transformation, a limitless possibility of turning nothing into something.” (Mori).


At age 1, Mori’s life changed completely, she was devastated when her mother committed suicide. Her father remarried one year later, but the household was not a happy one, and Mori looked for ways to stay away from home. Eventually, she moved to the United States to attend college, receiving her bachelors degree from Rockford College and a masters and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin.


Mori’s writing grows out of her personal experiences, but she doesn’t always write exactly what happens in her own life. “I think that the best thing about being a writer is that we get to moke up things and tell the truth at the same time,” she says (Mori). Since she received her doctoral degree, in 184, Mori has taught creative writing and has published fiction, poetry, and essays. Much of what she write is based on the things she knows. For example, she wrote about growing up in Japan, being a runner or a gardener, certain feelings she had as a teenager about wanting to be honest and wanting to be liked. But my novels are more about what could, might or even should have happened, not about what did happen in my real life. All the characters are reflections of some aspect of herself, but none of the characters are strictly herself. She thinks that the best thing about being a writer is that they get to make up things and tell the truth at the same time.


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She did not write about my experience of growing up in Japan until she was in graduate school. There, she first wrote a story about an old woman, someone like her grandmother, having a birthday after her husband and some of her children had died. She wanted to find out, through writing, what it might be like to be she grandmother or someone like her, how an old woman might find moments of joy even in her otherwise lonely life. That story became the seed of what later developed into Shizukos Daughter. She saw the novel at first as a collection of short stories about three women--a daughter, a mother, and a grandmother--in a particular family somewhat like my own. She did not write the stories in a chronological manner. She first wrote a story about the grandmother, which turned out to be the last chapter, then a few stories about the daughter, a story about the mother, and then some more about the grandmother. A few years later, she filled in the gaps, developed the characters more consistently, and turned the collection into a novel.


Her first novel for young adults, Shizukos Daughter (1), was followed by a collection of poetry, Fallout (14). In Moris well-received memoir The Dream of Water (15), she travels back to Kobe to make peace with her mothers suicide and to visit the family she left behind. That same year she published her second young adult novel, One Bird (15). Polite Lies, essays about her life as a Japanese American woman in the Midwest, was published in 18. Stone Field, True Arrow (000) marks her first book of adult fiction and relates the story a middle-aged womans awakening after her father dies in Japan. Mori is currently a Briggs-Copeland lecturer in Creative Writing at Harvard University





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In William Faulkner’s short story “A Rose for Emily”, the use of gothic elements help to set the proper atmosphere needed to convince the reader that the story is possible. With the gothic writing style, the writer captures the decay of society, life, and love in the post Civil War South, and the horrors that human beings are capable of committing against themselves and one another. The mystery of the story is set off perfectly by the style in which it is written. In any other writing style it would not be believable that the crimes of Emily would be unknown. It would just be a story about a crazy woman who kills her lover. But within the gothic genre the gruesome details of such crimes are wholly believable and the crime itself seems justifiable if not romantic. In any other genre this crime and the actions carried out after it would be nothing less than horrifying.


The atmosphere of the story is presented to the reader within the second paragraph. “Only Miss Emily’s house was left, lifting its stubborn and coquettish decay above the cotton wagons and the gasoline pumps-an eyesore among eyesores.” (p. 75 line ) The words used for the description of a dilapidated house alone are enough to bring the imagination into play, visions of rambling houses once beautiful and proud falling into irreversible disrepair among the streets of such cities as New Orleans, draw the reader into the story from the beginning and set the mood. The language even spreads to such a seemingly small matter of Emily’s handwriting, “paper of an archaic shape, in a thin, flowing calligraphy in faded ink,” (p. 75 line 0). Such descriptive language is typical of gothic literature and sets the atmosphere of the idea in stone.


The plot of the story is enhanced and forwarded by the atmosphere. If the atmosphere were of any other type, the plot would not be believable. If the atmosphere was not gothic, the reader would be able to deduce that Emily had killed Homer as soon as she bought the arsenic. This would have completely ruined the surprise ending that is completely vital to the plot. In gothic literature the reader is sucked into a story, completely open to believing anything. Atmosphere is needed for a plot, but plot is not needed for atmosphere.


The atmosphere of the story is heightened by the sense of mystery surrounding Emily and her house. No one knows why Emily will not leave her house, and why only her servant goes in and out. This riddle makes you wonder what is going on inside the house, it makes the reader yearn to know what is in Emily’s world. The air of mystery continues with the smell. (p. 76 & 77) No one really knows what the smell is, and the narrative tells the reader only what the townsfolk know. It is only at the very end of the story that the reader realizes just what the smell is from. These elements build the atmosphere of intrigue and horror.


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Love, death and decay are what gothic literature center around. These essential elements build the atmosphere to a fever pitch towards the end of the story. When Emily finally dies, the house is opened. Emily had been in love with Homer, but he was going to desert her. Instead of allowing him to walk out on her, when she was so far above his station in society, she kills him. She knew he was her last chance and she was lonely. When the revelation of his death and her, for lack of a better word, necrophiliac tendencies the reader is shocked and disgusted along with the rest of the town. The atmosphere of the entire story builds up to this point and explodes like a bomb in the readers face.


Without the use of the gothic style “A Rose for Emily” would not have been nearly as suspenseful or enjoyable. The proper atmosphere is essential to a good story, and to have that atmosphere it has to be written in the appropriate style. “A Rose for Emily” evokes the decaying and dissolute days of the post Civil War South and the realization of the atrocities that can be performed in the name of love and honor. William Faulkner’s use of language and imagery creates the perfect atmosphere for a story like this and they made it an enjoyable story for those who have an imagination that never stops.





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The Ad Campaign for the Re-launch of Frooti- The Digen Verma Ad campaign


The Ad Campaign……


Last year for the Re-launch of FROOTI, Parle Agro Ltd and its advertising agency Everest Integrated Communications created a brand ambassador named Digen Verma. There were hoards of hoardings in the city talking about this mysterious guy called Digen Verma. It said that he dances better than Hritik and is Sushmitas latest crush. Digen Verma became the talk of the town and also the joke of the town. Any anonymous person would be named Digen Verma. The brand ambassador became a celebrity overnight. People realized that it was a teaser campaign for a new product. Everyone waited to see what this new hot thing was. After a long wait of around month, the product was revealed. It was our very own, very old FROOTI. Then a series of television Ads followed which talked about how famous Digen is and that he loves frooti. (See Annexure A). But there the campaign ended.


Backdrop of the Campaign


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When Frooti was first launched, there was a glamour attached to tetra packing. It was seen as trendy, so the brand became quite popular. Soon thereafter, the cola wave happened, which changed the whole ballgame. The colas spent huge amounts of money and attracted all age groups of consumers. The result that while the kids who drank Frooti grew up, Frooti did not. And Frooti lost its connect with the teens, who were now attracted to colas. The task at hand for Everest was to reposition Frooti and make its appeal more relevant to the young adults (teens) without alienating the existing consumers of the brand (kids of age 5-10 years). To kick-start this repositioning exercise, it was first important to shake-up the beverage category and bring Frooti top-of-mind. All this was at a time when the category was seeing intense activity, led by soft drink majors like Coke and Pepsi. Both majors were using leading celebrities to endorse their brands, which meant that Frooti had to do something so different that it would make people stop and take notice. They did not have the resources to match the colas. The colas were using celebrities, who were very expensive. However, their research in colleges showed that, no matter which year students are in, theres always one model student that everyone talks about. Like, for instance, Hey, have you heard of this guy five years ago… woh bada dada tha. He is five years senior to you, and hes no longer in college, yet, everyone keeps talking about him. Every college has a legend students hold in awe and try to emulate. He is a celebrity in his own right.


So they decided to create their own celebrity - one whom teenagers can be friendly with and try to emulate. Thats was the idea behind Digen Verma.


The Repercussion


The ad kicked off well. Digen Verma was someone nobody had seen. Everyone wanted to know. People tried interesting things figuring out the product behind the ad. Some tried to unscramble the name and then decipher it. Some thought it was the launch of a new car in the city that the ad prompted. Some explained it to be a part of another NIIT ad. But the fact was that this ad got everyone thinking and scratching their heads and this was exactly what it had intended to do.


The first phase of the Digen campaign successfully created a celebrity - Digen Verma. People were talking about Digen. People eagerly waited to meet and know this Ad-Hero. They were also waiting for an excellent product. Soon came a blow and everyone was taken aback. Their theories proven wrong. They stood unjustified in front of the relaunch of a mango drink. It was the unexpected. It was Frooti and it was back into action. Many were disappointed. They waited for some thing which would be new and innovative. But what they got was their very old FROOTI in a new pack and with a new punch line Just Like That. But many appreciated the brains behind the ad as they were able to create the hype.


Then came another set of ads crying out how Digen loved Frooti. But it was very difficult for people to associate Digen Verma with Frooti. Even today, many remember Digen Verma but cannot remember the brand with which he was associated. Digen the brand ambassador became more famous than the brand itself.


Even after all this the identity of Digen Verma was not revealed. People still waited to see who Digen was. But the wait was too long. They stretched the suspense like a rubber band. But they did not realize that there is a line between curiosity and frustration. People were frustrated. But still ysterious Digen still remained a mystery. In the meanwhile the ads started fading. Digen Verma seemed to move into the backdrop of it all. No behind-the-scenes sneak previews for him. No celebrity interviews. No pictures. No words. No Digen Verma. All that remained was the drink and it remained refreshingly relaunched in the Indian market.


Ads are of three types


1. Ads having great winning concept but does not increase sales. They will be recalled for decades.


. Ads which dramatically increase sales, but does not remain in the audience psyche.


. Ads which do increase sales and is also appreciated for the concept


And the Digen campaign easily falls in the in the first category. It didnt increase the sales of Frooti just made its presence felt in market and this teaser ad will remain in audiences subconscious for years to come. Everest was awarded Silver during the Seventh Triple A Awards for the Digen Verma Campaign. But was it their main aim. All the ads did was creating hype and made the people think. Its like having more icing than the cake. But the actual objective was never achieved. They relaunched Frooti so as to regain the market share of the drinks category which was taken over by the cola drinks. They wanted to position it as a drink for the children as well for the teens. But nothing clicked. The sales of Frooti never went up. It still remains as a drink for the children.


Alls well that ends well! Here they started off in a big way. It was a media innovation of releasing the teaser copy in hoardings. But the end was dismal. The campaign went havoc and was dumped half way. They did not carry their mission forward. They accepted defeat half way.


Lessons for the day


1. If you want to make a successful ad campaign go with the concept which will best suit the product.


. Look out for concepts which will increase sales and not just create hype and win you awards.


. Implementation is also as essential as planning.


4. Have alternative plans so as to attain your end objective.


5. Have a never say die attitude.


TVC STORYBOARD - Frooti


A young girl looks into the camera


and shrieks excitedly, Hey guys!


Digen is here! Cut to the principals office, he


scoffs, Hes come to college? Is


he doing me a favour?


The shot of the college corridor.


Everyone stops to say Hi to


the much-awaited Digen. He finally stops at the canteen.


The waiter beams at him, Digen


bhai, kya laaon?


The enigmatic Digen Verma places


a tetra pack of Frooti on the table


before him. Frooti? A stunned


silence envelops the campus. Suddenly, everyone starts talking


at once. Yaar! Digen is having Frooti!


The news reaches the principal


and he too is bowled over.


It spreads like wild fire and soon


enough the whole college talks


about it. Frooti?... ...Kya baat kar raha hai? Digen?


Product window. Super Frooti.


Just like that.


The Digen Verma Ad-Campaign


For Frooti


Submitted by


The Ad Campaign……


Last year for the Re-launch of FROOTI, Parle Agro Ltd and its advertising agency Everest Integrated Communications created a brand ambassador named Digen Verma. There were hoards of hoardings in the city talking about this mysterious guy called Digen Verma. It said that he dances better than Hritik and is Sushmitas latest crush. Digen Verma became the talk of the town and also the joke of the town. Any anonymous person would be named Digen Verma. The brand ambassador became a celebrity overnight. People realized that it was a teaser campaign for a new product. Everyone waited to see what this new hot thing was. After a long wait of around month, the product was revealed. It was our very own, very old FROOTI. Then a series of television Ads followed which talked about how famous Digen is and that he loves frooti. (See Annexure A). But there the campaign ended.


Backdrop of the Campaign


When Frooti was first launched, there was a glamour attached to tetra packing. It was seen as trendy, so the brand became quite popular. Soon thereafter, the cola wave happened, which changed the whole ballgame. The colas spent huge amounts of money and attracted all age groups of consumers. The result that while the kids who drank Frooti grew up, Frooti did not. And Frooti lost its connect with the teens, who were now attracted to colas. The task at hand for Everest was to reposition Frooti and make its appeal more relevant to the young adults (teens) without alienating the existing consumers of the brand (kids of age 5-10 years). To kick-start this repositioning exercise, it was first important to shake-up the beverage category and bring Frooti top-of-mind. All this was at a time when the category was seeing intense activity, led by soft drink majors like Coke and Pepsi. Both majors were using leading celebrities to endorse their brands, which meant that Frooti had to do something so different that it would make people stop and take notice. They did not have the resources to match the colas. The colas were using celebrities, who were very expensive. However, their research in colleges showed that, no matter which year students are in, theres always one model student that everyone talks about. Like, for instance, Hey, have you heard of this guy five years ago… woh bada dada tha. He is five years senior to you, and hes no longer in college, yet, everyone keeps talking about him. Every college has a legend students hold in awe and try to emulate. He is a celebrity in his own right.


So they decided to create their own celebrity - one whom teenagers can be friendly with and try to emulate. Thats was the idea behind Digen Verma.


The Repercussion


The ad kicked off well. Digen Verma was someone nobody had seen. Everyone wanted to know. People tried interesting things figuring out the product behind the ad. Some tried to unscramble the name and then decipher it. Some thought it was the launch of a new car in the city that the ad prompted. Some explained it to be a part of another NIIT ad. But the fact was that this ad got everyone thinking and scratching their heads and this was exactly what it had intended to do.


The first phase of the Digen campaign successfully created a celebrity - Digen Verma. People were talking about Digen. People eagerly waited to meet and know this Ad-Hero. They were also waiting for an excellent product. Soon came a blow and everyone was taken aback. Their theories proven wrong. They stood unjustified in front of the relaunch of a mango drink. It was the unexpected. It was Frooti and it was back into action. Many were disappointed. They waited for some thing which would be new and innovative. But what they got was their very old FROOTI in a new pack and with a new punch line Just Like That. But many appreciated the brains behind the ad as they were able to create the hype.


Then came another set of ads crying out how Digen loved Frooti. But it was very difficult for people to associate Digen Verma with Frooti. Even today, many remember Digen Verma but cannot remember the brand with which he was associated. Digen the brand ambassador became more famous than the brand itself.


Even after all this the identity of Digen Verma was not revealed. People still waited to see who Digen was. But the wait was too long. They stretched the suspense like a rubber band. But they did not realize that there is a line between curiosity and frustration. People were frustrated. But still ysterious Digen still remained a mystery. In the meanwhile the ads started fading. Digen Verma seemed to move into the backdrop of it all. No behind-the-scenes sneak previews for him. No celebrity interviews. No pictures. No words. No Digen Verma. All that remained was the drink and it remained refreshingly relaunched in the Indian market.


Ads are of three types


1. Ads having great winning concept but does not increase sales. They will be recalled for decades.


. Ads which dramatically increase sales, but does not remain in the audience psyche.


. Ads which do increase sales and is also appreciated for the concept


And the Digen campaign easily falls in the in the first category. It didnt increase the sales of Frooti just made its presence felt in market and this teaser ad will remain in audiences subconscious for years to come. Everest was awarded Silver during the Seventh Triple A Awards for the Digen Verma Campaign. But was it their main aim. All the ads did was creating hype and made the people think. Its like having more icing than the cake. But the actual objective was never achieved. They relaunched Frooti so as to regain the market share of the drinks category which was taken over by the cola drinks. They wanted to position it as a drink for the children as well for the teens. But nothing clicked. The sales of Frooti never went up. It still remains as a drink for the children.


Alls well that ends well! Here they started off in a big way. It was a media innovation of releasing the teaser copy in hoardings. But the end was dismal. The campaign went havoc and was dumped half way. They did not carry their mission forward. They accepted defeat half way.


Lessons for the day


1. If you want to make a successful ad campaign go with the concept which will best suit the product.


. Look out for concepts which will increase sales and not just create hype and win you awards.


. Implementation is also as essential as planning.


4. Have alternative plans so as to attain your end objective.


5. Have a never say die attitude.


TVC STORYBOARD - Frooti


A young girl looks into the camera


and shrieks excitedly, Hey guys!


Digen is here! Cut to the principals office, he


scoffs, Hes come to college? Is


he doing me a favour?


The shot of the college corridor.


Everyone stops to say Hi to


the much-awaited Digen. He finally stops at the canteen.


The waiter beams at him, Digen


bhai, kya laaon?


The enigmatic Digen Verma places


a tetra pack of Frooti on the table


before him. Frooti? A stunned


silence envelops the campus. Suddenly, everyone starts talking


at once. Yaar! Digen is having Frooti!


The news reaches the principal


and he too is bowled over.


It spreads like wild fire and soon


enough the whole college talks


about it. Frooti?... ...Kya baat kar raha hai? Digen?


Product window. Super Frooti.


Just like that.





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participative management


11 Silver Prayaas


Leadership is one of the most


observed and least understood


Buy cheap participative management term paper




phenomenon on earth. Burns (178)


remarks. The problem arises not only


in understanding the operation of the


theory but even in its definition


Leadership is a complex and


multifaceted phenomenon to which


organizational and psychological


research has been applied.


A macro-level comparison of


business organizations in India vis-a


vis those of successful countries like


Japan, America, Germany, France


and Korea provide certain interesting


information. Physical and human


resource-wise comparison indicates


that there may not be yawning gaps


between Indian organizations and


the organization of the countries cited


above. While these countries have


developed management styles in


consonance with their cultural ethos,


Leadership in organizations


An Indian perspective


S W DESHPANDE


A number of theories and models have been proposed of leadership in organisations by


western theorists. These theories have worked well in those countries since they have been


developed keeping in view, the cultural context. These models may be good there but they


prove to be some what inadequate in the Indian cultural context. Indian organisations


cannot forget that their leadership models come from their socio culture. Indian cultural


is so accommodative that it welcomes noble thought coming from all over the world. The


author has developed a leadership model which would befit Indian organisations. The


model ‘EAST MEETS WEST’ could satisfy the needs of the Indian corporate world.


Indian management experts had no


choice but to depend on western


perspectives because of the absence


of a local database and theoretical


framework.


Leadership theory began as a one


dimensional, internal and


individualistic process in which only


a leader ’s personality traits or


behaviors were considered.


Situational elements, external to the


leader-member dyad were


subsequently added to the leadership


equations as well as an


acknowledgement of group


processes. An important new growth


stage was reached in the contingency


era as leadership theory evolved from


unidimensional to the


multidimensional arena. Here the


interaction of the leader,


subordinates and the situation all


became important in explaining


leadership. Leadership theory was


further advanced when the focus


changed from leadership being


primarily a top-down process to


much more of a bottom-up process.


Situational and non- leadership


factors were considered again but


this time from an integrative


perspective. The culture era built on


the situational factors, which


extended the scope of leadership


from group interactions to the


interactions of the entire


organization, affected by the persons


involved, their situations and their


influences on each other. King (10)


has summarized the major leadership


eras and periods, which are


presented in Table 1.


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March 00 11


Table 1 Evolutionary Stages of Leadership Theory


Personality Era Transactional Era


- Great Man Period - Exchange period


- Trait Period - Role Development Period


Influence Era Anti-Leadership Era


- Power Relation Period - Ambiguity Period


- Persuasion Period - Substitute Period


Behavior Era Culture Era


-Early Behavior Period - Transformation Era


-Late Behavior Period - Charisma Period


-Operant Period - Self- fulfilling


Contingency Era


In India the studies on leadership


began in the mid 50s. There are two


definite trends in the studies, the first


one are the studies done by Indian


researchers following the western


models, ignoring the Indian cultural


characteristics and the second are the


studies conducted by the American


organizational behavioral scientists


visiting management institutes in


India in the 60s and opined on the


basis of a limited data. Both the types


of studies have their limitations in the


sense that they have presented a lopsided


view of leadership of the Indian


organizations.


In the first type, we may include the


study by Ganguly (177) who has


surveyed a large number of


managers from a variety of


organizations and concluded that


that there was an interactive effect of


the leadership styles and the


organizational climate. Leaders


tended to use the benevolent


autocratic style but shifted to the


consultative style in organizations,


which have a participative work


climate. Prior to this, Pendse (165)


had done his doctoral work on


consultative style of leadership and


suggested that this worked very


effectively with the rural folk. The


second type of studies projected


authoritarian features on Indians.


Mead has opined that Indian


subordinates need authoritarian


leaders. Empirical studies (Hofstede,


176, 188) comparing values


across a number of countries have


clearly indicated the existing cultural


differences. Hofstede observed that


Americans score high on recognition


and achievement and low on


conformity, whereas Asians scored


high on conformity and orderliness


but low on independence Sinha


(17) has questioned the validity of


the assumption that Indians are


authoritarian in the sense defined by


Adorno et al (150). One of the


typical Indian cultural characteristics


is tolerance, which does not go with


the authoritarian personality.


Leadership styles and the


management processes in India


unfortunately appear to be a queer


cocktail without any unique and


distinctive focus of its own. Right from


the start, from the post independence


phase of development, not adequate


and serious grass-root efforts were


made to evolve leadership styles and


management processes that are true


to Indian ethos and culture and this


ethos itself has not sufficiently been


understood in its real spirit. The


educated Indians appear to be


Indianising management,


considering the Indian culture to be


feudalistic and backward. There are


many cultural values shared by both


Japan and India for example, respect


for the head of the family,


hierarchical relationship, seniority


and age. However, in India it is these


very features, which are made the


principal target of attack by the


Indian elite.


In the ‘80s two indigenous theories


of leadership came into prominence.


The first one is by J.B.P. Sinha who


advocated the Nurturant Task (NT)


style of leadership. This theory follows


a contingency approach in the sense


that the Nurturant - Task leader is


postulated to be effective only for


those subordinates who prefer


dependency and a personalized


relationship, are status conscious and


perform work as a part of a


relationship. Although, majority of


Indian subordinates do share these


cultural characteristics, there may be


enough subordinates who are


independent-minded, prefer


autonomy and want to work without


close supervision. Such subordinates


work more effectively under a


participative leader. In fact, the theory


postulates a broad developmental


continuum from the authoritarian


through NT to participative


leadership styles. This model of


leadership is presented in Figure 1.


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114 Silver Prayaas


The Indigenous Theories


• The Nurturant Task (TN) Style of Leadership (J.


B. P. Sinha)


A Model of Effective Leadership


F NT Nt/p P


Autonomous Group


S S1 S S


t t1 t t ti


(Notes F authoritarian; nt/p combination of nurturant task; P participative


leaders; S subordinates; t time point; solid lines positive relationship;


broken line negative relationship; arrow direction of relations.)


Figure 1. A model of effective leadership (J.B.P.Sinha, 18)


S1 is the Telling Style, S is the Selling


Style, S is the Participative Style and


S4 is the Delegating Style. Hersey


and Blanchard proposed these four


leadership styles in their Life Cycle


theory of leadership (16). t1, t


and t denote the periods in the life


span referring to the maturity levels


of the subordinates.


The next is The Pioneering-Innovative


(PI) style of leadership (Khandwala,


18). The NT style of leadership


proposed by Sinha is more


appropriate for the middle level


managers whose main function is to


manage human relations.


Khandwalla has contended that a


leader has to be pioneering and


innovative. The PI style is


characterized by commitment to


pioneering, novel and sophisticated


technologies, products and services,


high risk taking and strong emphasis


on creativity and adaptability.


Following liberalization of economics


of the developing countries in Asia,


the PI style is likely to receive greater


attention.


Despite Khandwalla’s claim, the Pi


leadership does not seem to include


the typical Indian ethos of affection,


nurturance, care, consideration,


preference for dependency and


personalized relationship,


hierarchical orientation. The cultural


ethos is reflected in the Singh and


Bhandarkar’s (10) formulation of


transformational leadership. They


have tried to find the roots of Indian


leadership in the Indian family.


A close examination of the


functioning of business organizations


in India indicates that not only do we


import leadership styles and


management systems, but even


compare this error by changing them


in faddist fashion. Such an approach


invariably leads to cynical reactions


like branding leadership styles of


management systems as new


gimmicks emerging from academic


ivory towers. Moreover many


companies feel nonplussed by the


surefire management success


formulae from Harvard, Oxford or


Tokyo. Rather than blindly adopting


the leadership styles and the


management systems, we would be


better off if we were to make the


change at the root itself � evolve


culturally consistent and relevant


leadership styles.


Indian culture, being probably the


only unbroken culture in the world,


has both kinds of processes Those


that can help change and those that


hinder change (development). A


better understanding of these


processes may help us to use them


for planning.


Positive forces in the Indian culture


include high extension motivation


(concern for others), as reflected in


the patriotic traditions, and respect


for others as reflected in the


welcoming different ideas, people


openness; synthesis, respect for


knowledge etc.


The following processes in Indian


culture are shown in Table


Table Processes in the Indian


Culture


1. Dependency motive,


generating -


a) Avoidance syndrome (not


taking initiative, not


taking responsibility,


exaggerating obstacles)


b) Excessive fear of failure


and risk avoidance


c) Over conformism


d) Favor seeking


. Casteism, generating -


a) Difficulty to relate to peer


level


b) Dependency relationship


as contrasted with


interdependence


c) Role fixation


d) Self rejection resulting


because of role fixation


. Fatalism, generating -


a) Cynicism (Nothing good


The Indigenous Theories


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March 00 115


can come out)


b) Lack of self critical self


examination (Low


personal block)


4. Non-involvement and


noncommitment -(feeling of joy


after success and feeling of


sadness after failure)


a) Non-conforming


behavior


b) Excessive tolerance


5. Individualism, generating -


a) Lack of interpersonal trust


b) Difficulties


in collaboration


6. Irreality orientation, generating


�(may be due to Upanishadic


teaching that everything is


MAYA - unveil)


a) Symbol infatuation


b) Fantasy directedness


c) Difficulty in anticipating


problems and values


Singh and Bhandarkar (10)


have listed some components


of Indian culture. They are


presented in Table .


Table Components of Indian


Culture


 Karta


 Relationships


 Respect for elders


 Proximity to Power


 Hierarchy


 Security


 Simple Living and High


Thinking


 Psychology of Entitlement and


over � emphasis on Reward


The first component is the institution


of KARTA. The immense authority and


power characterize the Karta or the


head of the house. Besides, since the


Hindu family is largely a patriarchal


institution, the father is the most


omnipotent in the family. The ‘Karta’


experience is amongst the earliest


and strongest socialization


experiences of the Indian child. It is


nurturing, caring, dependable,


sacrificing, yet demanding


authoritative and strict dimension of


the father (or figure head of the


house) which the individual learns to


value for in life. By behavior and style,


the Karta normally evokes a feeling


of security, trust and dependability.


As a result of this cumulative


experience, a father is what the


individual looks for symbolically in


the workplace, for empowering and


protection. In return the individual


develops respect and reverence for


his superior and demonstrates


willingness to respect his authority.


When the individual joins work with


his set of expectations, he can be


faced with two kinds of situations. He


either has a superior who, by and


large, meets his demands or he finds


that the superior is very low on ‘Karta


� like’ traits, there is meaningful and


purposeful superior � subordinate


relationship. The superior also finds


that he can easily build a cohesive


team, with the subordinates having


respect for his authority. On the other


hand, when the superior fails to


satisfy the “Karta image” expectations


, these very positive behaviors may


easily turn negative. In the extreme


case, there will be non-acceptance


for the superior’s formal authority.


Relationship is the next important


component of the Indian culture. This


is the result of the extended


childhood, which characterizes the


Indian family system, compared to


the shorter childhood, which children


experience in the western system of


child rearing. The individual comes


to the work place and brings with him


a strong need to relate with others.


When organizational culture is not


Dr. S.W. Deshpande has


done his post graduation in


arts and is a consultant,


Trainer and Teacher. He was


the Head of Dept. of


Psychology in the University


of Pune from 15 July to


17. He was also the


Programme Director of


Sinhgad Institute of Business


Administration Pune. He has


presented various papers on


management in National


and International journals


and has attended


International Conferences


in management in Dublin,


Sharjah and Dubai. He was


the King Edward Memorial


Scholar from 15 to 161.


He was also the President of


the Marathi Manasshastra


Parishad and the Chairman


of the Board of Studies in


Psychology and Member of


the Academic Council of


SNDT University, Mumbai.


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116 Silver Prayaas


depersonalized , relatedness releases


positive energies like empathy,


intimacy, togetherness, we-feeling


etc. When the organization culture


is characterized by impersonality,


formal role-relationship, individual


experiences a sense of deprivation


of intimacy. Work wise, there is poor


team spirit leading to poor


performance, especially where


people with different group


orientations have to work together as


a team.


Proximity to power The ethos of the


joint family system with its heavy


accent on Karta experiences,


generates a unique psychological


response in the individual. The


experienced powerlessness ( to act


independently) and dependency in


childhood and adolescence result in


placing a high value on the power


as well as need to choose this power


source.


In the workplace the person has


similar expectation from the superior


who is looked up as a powerful


person. There can be too many


expectations, and excessive


dependence upon the authority


figure. At the work level, this would


mean that there is no independent


decision making, thus killing


individual capacity to take risk and


initiative to be innovative and


creative.


Blake and Mouton (15), borrowing


two dimensions form classical


American studies, developed a


Managerial grid. The two dimensions


were concern for task and concern


for people. They highlighted five


leadership styles in the managerial


grid, which is presented in Fig. .


Fig Managerial Grid


THE GRID


(Blake & Mouton)


,1 1,1


,5 ,5


5, 5, High


1 4 5 6 7 8


Low Concern for production High


1,


Thoughtful attention to needs


for satisfying relationships


leads to a comfortable,


friendly organisation


atmosphere & work tempo.


,


Work accomplishment is


from committed people.


Interdependence through a


“common stake” in


organisation purpose leads to


relationships of trust &


respect.


Exertion of minimum effort


to get work done is


appropriate to sustain


organisation membership.


Efficiency in operations


results from arranging


conditions of work in such a


way that human elements


interfere to a minimum


degree. 1


Low


8


Concern for people


6


5


4


5,5


Adequate organisation performance is


possible through balancing the necessity to


get out work with maintaining morale of


people at a satisfactory level.


7


The present investigator is attracted


to the managerial grid.


In order to evolve culturally consistent


(not accept) them. If these noble


thoughts were culturally relevant, we


would surely assimilate them.


If we see the components of Indian


culture, an individual at the


workplace expects a boss who is


powerful but at the same time


sympathetic, caring and also


providing security to the employee.


He should be like


As strong and hard as the sword but


as delicate and soft as a flower. A


East Meets West


(DESHPANDE, 17)


.1 .1 1.1 1.1


.5 .5 5.5 5.5


. . 5. 5. 1. 1.


Concern for productivity


Concern for people


CONSULTATIVE


TYPE


BENEVOLENT


AUTOCRAT


Benevolent Autocrat


Indicators


•Decisive / shows initiative


•Finisher / committed


•Evaluative of quality, quantity,


time


•Costs, profits & sales-conscious


•Both develops & proposes new


ideas


•Shows that efficiency &


productivity are valued


•Industrious / energetic


•Obtains results


and relevant leadership styles, one


has to carefully consider the


components of Indian culture. It is


also necessary to see that there are


culturally relevant models of


leadership prevailing in the western


countries, which proved the test of


time. Our teaching of Upanishadas


have widened our horizon to


welcome whatever good is there in


any part of the world


Let all the noble thoughts come from


all over the world, we would welcome


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March 00 117


who become mature, responsible


and also committed to the


organization. For such employees


5. style � CONSUlTATIVE TYPE


would be more relevant (Figure.).


There is a difference between this


style and American participative style.


In the latter, the decisions are arrived


at through discussions wherein each


member participates. Every member


has a role to play in the decisionmaking.


In the consultative style, the


boss, leader, or the powerful person


discusses with the other individuals


in the group, consults them but he is


the decision maker. This style is


recommended for the higher level


subordinates. As the Indian teaching


goes


REFERENCES


1) King, A.S. (10) Evolution of Leadership Theory Vikalja Vol 15(), 4-54


) Singh, P and Bhandarkar, A (18) Transformational leaders- A Study of their leadership profile Public Enterprises


Vol , Nos. -4


) Pendse V.V. (165) Consultative Type of Leadership, Unpublished P. Hd. Thesis Submitted to University of Pune


4) Singh, P and Bhandarkar (18) From Cultural Ethos to organizational milieu, In Management in Govt published


by ISTD, New Delhi.


5) Sinha JBP (18) Indian Perspectives on Leadership and Power in organizations. In social behavior and personality


edited by Janale Pande Allahabad.


6) Burns, J M (178) Leadership, New York Harper and Row


7) Blake, R. R. Morton J.S. (166) The Managerial Grid “ Management Facades” Advance Management Journal


8) Chemers, M.N. (000) Leadership research and theory A functional integration group dynamics, Theory Research


and practice Vol 4, No 1, 7-4


) Humphreys , J.H. (001) Transformational and Transactional Leader Behavior Journal of management Research


Vol 1 No 148-156


10) Dhar, V Mishra, P (001) Leadership effectiveness Journal of Management Research Vol 1 No 4 55-66


11) Adorno, T.W. Frenkel-Brunswik, Else, Levinson, D.J. & Sanford, R.N. (150) The Authoritarian personality, New


York, Harper


Leadership is action, not position


- D. H. Mc Gannon


combination of these two we shall


find in our boss. A .5 style in the


managerial grid would be relevant


one. This is a BENEVOLENT


AUTOCRAT. The characteristic of a


benevolent autocrat are given in


Figure. below.


The father figure (KARTA) is


transferred to the workplace. The


employee derives satisfaction in such


an organizational setup where the


boss is strict but soft and considerate


when the occasion demands. This


leadership style is applicable to the


lower level subordinates who are


dependency prone, doing almost


routine type of work.


As the employees become


experienced there could be some


àmßV{fw [m{Se{ df} [w̧ o_Ì dXmMa{V²


From the age of 16 the father should


treat his son as his friend. At the


workplace also task orientation is not


the prime concern of this style. The


employees are responsible mature


and dedicated. Self-esteem should


be well protected by the boss, butthe


task orientation should not be


totally ignored.


The present author puts forth a


continuum of the maturity of the


subordinates and recommends the


benevolent autocrat style at the lower


and the consultative style at the upper


level of the maturity continuum.


These are the culturally consistent


and relevant leadership styles for


Indian organizations.





Please note that this sample paper on participative management is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on participative management, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on participative management will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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its about me!


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all my life i have tried to pretend to be someone else . running away from the current reality and placing myself in a place of utopia.. a wonderland where everything is fine.... where i rule always. but in doin so i have lost the trust of many a loved ones


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i am a confused individual. always retrospective about everything i do.i tend to repent after i have said and done.but i have a positive side, the side that is articulate . art is my life . i live and breathe art


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The Master of Science in Project Management will fast forward the development of my knowledge, performance and personal competencies in order to reach my career goals. It will give me a state of art project management skills and techniques and it will be the jump-start I need to direct my career into Project Management Consulting, an exciting field with enormous growth potential in Latin America.


The first step of my academic career was completed when I received my major of Civil Engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Paraná, Brazil, as one of the top 15 students. During the second year of my Bachelor’s Degree I decided to have on job training. I began my professional experience as an intern in JAAKKO POYRY GROUP, during this internship I figure out how to interact with the team, the interpersonal behavior that I should have, how leadership is important and how project management is essential to a successfully project completion. Than I engaged myself in a great project, that was already completed, Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Plant. I reckon that in large projects the schedules have to be done very carefully and the control has to be very efficient. I was really fascinated by Project Management and I started reading a lot about this field and I figure out that the growth potential in Brazil was really good. In this point of my professional career I was hired at Grantec T�cnica de Construção Ltda. My mission was to implement ISO 00114. The company received the Certificate, but the most important think were the “lessons learned”, such as the comprehension of the organizational culture, the making decisions process, the ways to identify a problem, the commitment to the company goals, that sometimes I have to be flexible and never give up, be dynamic, patient and persistent. At this moment, I finished my bachelor’s degree and started the second step on my academic career enhancing the Executive MBA Lato Sensu graduate course in Project Management in Getúlio Vargas Foundation, known as one of the best schools of Project Management in Brazil because of its comprehensive curriculum, faculty and alumni network. During this course, I consistently ranked the top 10% as a result of my grades, motivation and engagement. While I was attending this course I was challenged with some other projects in Grantec, such as the construction of Multiplex Cinema theaters for international companies, United Cinemas International (UCI) and Cine Box, and for a national company, Severiano Ribeiro Group, the biggest Brazilian cinema operator, and the construction of an electrical sub-plant for PETROBRÁS, in the position of Planning and Quality Manager. These projects varied between US$ 500,000.00 to ,000,000.00, providing me relevant practice into project management as I was involved with technical and personal issues, such as the necessity of having a very effective way of communication between the site and the office, effective coordination of the documentation of the project, leadership and team spirit for keeping the work within the schedule and quality budgeted. Currently, I am the Project Manager of the construction of a Hotel for a group of Brazilian investors. As I am involved in this project since it’s beginning, I am now really applying some project management tools and techniques.


At this point, taking into consideration both academic and career experience and future plans, I feel that I have to deepen my knowledge in the field of project management to reach my goals. My interest in studying Project Management at The George Washington University is based firstly on the opportunity students have to engage in experiential learning projects and to meet and interact with successful project managers, providing me the opportunity to study some project management best practices and the possibility of bringing these practices to a less developed market in Latin America is appealing to me. Secondly, the school has Professional Associations and Journals, which will certainly keep me up to date, improving my knowledge, as well as giving me a solid background in order to have a research position. In addition, The George Washington University offers several courses on relevant topics for professionals in the project management field. Planning and Scheduling, Project Estimating and Cost Management courses and the Capstone Course are especially interesting for me. Furthermore, this program achieves in both practical and theory sides of project management and it is widely respected and known worldwide. The Project Management Professional Exam I plan to take during the Master’s program is of particular interest to me, as this title will certainly contribute to my career.


Brazil goes along with all the other nations in the search of an efficient organizational process. The recent increment in project management knowledge, tolls and techniques implementation in companies and governmental institutions, as well as the implementation of Project Management Office (PMO) have led me to the realization that opportunities for growth in the field of Project Management should not be overlooked. So that, my short-term career plan is to pursue the certificate of the Master of Science in Project Management, as this program will greatly enhance my academic background while allowing me to conduct researches about how project management best practices are used in developed countries, especially in United States. To reach my long-term career plan, my intermediate step includes working in a consulting company or in an institution that utilize project management knowledge, as a project manager. In this position, I will be able to apply some best practices learned during my Master’s degree, use new tools and techniques, analyze significant deviations and forecast their impact on the organization and projects in order to establish measures of success, quantify value commensurate with cost, optimize the use of organizational resources and put strategic plans into practice. The Master’s degree and this work experience will be fundamental for my long-term career plan. My long-term career plan is to have my own Consulting Company in Project Management. So that I will be able to coach companies and institutions, personalize the best practices for their realities, training and empowering them with efficient methodologies and tools, as well as helping them to develop low cost, easy to implement technical solutions, providing them competitive differentials. In addition to all the opportunities related to project management in Brazil, I also plan to embrace the teaching career. My participation in undergraduate and graduate courses or certificate programs by means of the delivery of tailored courses and lectures will enable me to share my knowledge and increase the project management community in Brazil. Regarding this academic interest, a Doctorate Degree in the field is certainly part of my long-term goals as well.


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I would like to conclude my statement by saying that my goals in regard to Project Management are well defined. They will ultimately lead me to a research field. My choice of taking a Master’s of Science in Project Management, has also been made bearing in mind the opportunities I may have in the development of PMI Handbooks, as well as my participation in Professional Development Seminars and PMI Global Congress presenting my researches and publications. In my country, I intend to stimulate the interest in project management by forming associations with institutions that can promote seminars and congresses, and particularly offer specialized courses in the field.


Finally, I am available for an interview, at your convenience.





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Many literary techniques are used to emphasize the theme of the Shakespearean play King Lear. The dramas theme is blindness, both mentally and physically, to the truth. In King Lear, the techniques of imagery, foreshadowing, and irony help to reinforce the dramas theme that people are blind to the truth.


Imagery is used frequently and helps to create a vivid image for the audience. Now all the plagues that in the pendulous air hang fated over mens faults lights on thy daughters. This quote uses imagery because part of the quote is lights on thy daughters which shows how Lears daughters dont love him except for Cordelia, who does. Another example of imagery, is when Cornwall stomps out Gloucesters eyes. When Gloucester realizes his mental and figurative blindness, Cornwall physically blinds him. At the end of the play, everyone betrays everyone else. This is an example of imagery because the characters are also betrayed mentally by one another.


Foreshadowing also enhances the idea of figurative blindness because the characters actions are hinted at before they actually occur. Ive escaped the pursuit therefore to survive Ill disguise myself as a crazy, dirty, beggar. Edgar, by dressing so poorly, is foreshadowing that he will have to do a dirty deed, which is killing his brother, Edmund, at the end of the play. In act , scene 4 the fool is telling Lear that poor fathers treat their children badly, when rich fathers make their children happy, but Lears children were still unhappy and wrong, even if he was rich. The fool was trying to tell King Lear that there was trouble amongst his daughters. This is an example of foreshadowing because the trouble the fool was telling Lear about could and did turn into something much more serious. Never! I was king, but I gave away my kingdom. The storm is my master now. This quote demonstrates foreshadowing because the way Lear is babbling, and talking about the storm, can mean that he is going crazy.


A third literary technique, irony, underscores the theme of the play. …Youll say they are Persian; but let them be changed. This is a comment made about Edgars messy, old clothes in act , scene 6. The comment is ironic because the word Persian usually refers to something beautiful and colorful. Away and let me die. This quote was made by Gloucester in act 4, scene 6. He was speaking to Edgar who had led him to a hill to jump from, but Gloucester expected to jump from a cliff. The quote is an example of dramatic irony because the audience knows that Gloucester is only jumping from a small hill, but since he is blind, he thinks he is jumping from a mighty cliff. In act 1, scene 1 Lear says, …Give me the map there. Know that we have divided in three our kingdom…to shake all cares and business from our age conferring them on younger strengths… This is another example of dramatic irony because the audience knows that giving his kingdom to his daughters is a bad idea on King Lears part. They know that Goneril and Reagan will betray Lear, but Lear is not yet aware of this fact.


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The use of imagery, foreshadowing, and irony significantly develop the plays central theme of physical and figurative blindness.





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In Linda Pastans poem Ethics, the speaker recounts a moral dilemma that her teacher would ask every fall, which has been haunting her for a long time. The question was if there were a fire in a museum / which would you save, a Rembrandt painting / or an old woman who hadnt many / years left anyhow? and the speaker tells us through the theme that ethics and moral values can be only learned from the reflection which comes through experience and maturity. In this poem, imagery, diction, and figures of speech contribute to the development of the theme.


The speaker in the poem uses images to help to support the theme. For example the statement that sometimes the woman borrowed my grandmothers face displays the inability of the children to relate the dilemma to themselves, something that the speaker has learned later on with time and experience. In this poem, the speaker is an old woman, and she places a high emphasis on the burden of years from which she speaks by saying old woman, / or nearly so, myself. I know now that woman / and painting and season are almost one / and all beyond saving by children. clearly states that the poem is not written for the amusement of children but somebody that has reached the speakers age, thus supporting the idea of the theme that children cannot help or understand her or anybody of her age. In addition, when the speakers describes the kids in the classroom as restless on hard chairs and caring little for picture or old age we can picture them in our minds sitting, ready to leave the class as soon as possible, unwilling and unable to understand the ethics dilemma or what the speaker is feeling.


The choice of words of the author also contributes to the development of the theme. For example, the use of words like drafty, half-heartedly, and half-imagined give the reader the idea of how faintly the dilemma was perceived and understood by the children, thus adding to the idea that the children cannot understand the burden the speaker has upon herself. In addition, referring to a Rembrandt as just a picture and to the woman as old age, we can see that these two symbols, which are very important to the speaker and to the poem, are considered trivial by the children, thus contributing to the concept that the children cannot feel what the speaker is feeling. To add to the idea of old age of the woman, and to define the point of view more clearly, the speaker uses old woman a number of times.


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The speaker uses the metaphors The colors / within this frame are darker than autumn, / darker even than winter and the browns of earth, / though earths most radiant elements burn / through the canvas. to give us the impression that the painting is not just a simple drawing, but it is something alive, something connected to the earth which is worth saving, thus putting it at the same level of the old woman, and thus making the dilemma more balanced. In addition, the idea of a color burning through the canvas puts more emphasis on the painting being something supernatural, thus increasing its status in the poem to be as high as (and maybe even higher than) the old woman. Symbolism is also used at the end of the poem, when the speaker describes the color of the painting as dark than autumn, / darker even than winter which adds to the idea that the painting is something that represents old age and death but that is also something natural, like a season. In addition, by saying that I now know that woman / and painting and season are almost one / and all beyond saving by children the speaker implies that both the painting and the woman represent something old, wise, and decadent, and are something that ethics say we cannot and should not easily give up, but children are not able to understand that, therefore they cannot save them.


In conclusion, this poem is not just about a lesson of ethics learned in school by a student. Instead, this poem is about the life of an old woman, the view of life children have of old things and old people and of life, and true beauty and importance things of age have, either for being wise and experienced or just for being there for so long. I have to admit that I did not take this poem too seriously at first, but after examining it closely and thinking about it, I have discovered its message and learned to appreciate its deepness.





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Now Wrong There are not a lot of things right about the world today and the things that are right have been turned around. Such as welfare, that was built for those who are struggling in life without a job and children to feed. Some people take advantage of the system. They stay on welfare all their life instead of trying to do something productive with it. Welfare is a support system but when you abuse it, it becomes a way of life.


Now Right The only thing I could really think of is freedom of speech but is it really free or is there an unwritten price tag? People say you can speak your mind and share your inter most thoughts and feelings but whether or not you go to jail for saying certain things, there are still consequences to whatever you speak.


Past Wrong Of course the discrimination against African Americans during the 50’s, 60’s and 70’s. It was defiantly wrong and there is no type of reconciliation for what has taken place. Both African American and Caucasian people to this day are still holding grudges because of their grandfather’s moral beliefs. It’s not fair to the rest of those who had nothing to do with the situation.


Past Right Abraham Lincoln! He was in my opinion the best thing that happened to the past for African Americans. He passed the law to make black and white schools co-ed. The invention of peanut butter, the Civil Rights Movement, first movie theatre, 60’s and 70’s music, Louis Armstrong, the Harlem Renaissance, Picasso, Michael Angelo and William Shakespeare.


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Future Wrong Wars can begin to take form and not just some ordinary war, but a war were everyone is against everyone, abortion becomes legal, Ohio State doesn’t when the National Championship again.


Future Right Ohio State is victorious once again, the cost of everything in the world goes down %, I graduate high school, get at least a C average in Mr. Saxon’s





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