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Wal-Mart - Strategic Management Analysis


Sam Walton, a leader with an innovative vision, started his own company and made it into the leader in discount retailing that it is today. Today, years after his death, the company is still growing steadily. Wal-Mart executives continue to rely on many of the traditional goals and philosophies that Sams legacy left behind, while simultaneously keeping one step ahead of the ever-changing technology and methods of todays fast-paced business environment.


The organization has faced, and is still facing, a significant amount of controversy over several different issues; however, none of these have done much more than scrape the exterior of this gigantic operation. The future also looks bright for Wal-Mart, especially if it is able to strike a comfortable balance between increasing its profits and recognizing its social and ethical responsibilities.


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Walton had a reputation for caring about his customers, his employees, and the community. In order to maintain its market position in the discount retail business, Wal-Mart executives continue to adhere to the management guidelines Sam developed. He believed in three guiding principles 1. Customer value and service, . Partnership with its associates, and . Community involvement.


Implementing the strategy put together by Sam Walton emphasizes building solid working relationships with both suppliers and employees, being aware and taking notice of the most intricate details in store layouts and merchandising techniques, capitalizing on every cost saving opportunity, and creating a high performance spirit. Wal-Mart stores operate according to their Everyday Low Price philosophy.


Wal-Mart has invested heavily in its unique cross-docking inventory system. Cross docking has enabled Wal-Mart to achieve economies of scale, which reduces its costs of sales. With this system, goods are continuously delivered to stores within 48 hours and often without having to inventory them. Lower prices also eliminate the expense of frequent sales promotions and sales are more predictable. Cross docking gives the individual managers more control at the store level.


A company owned transportation system also assists Wal-Mart in shipping goods from warehouse to store in less than 48 hours. This allows Wal-Mart to replenish the shelves four times faster than its competition.


Wal-Mart has been led from the top but run from the bottom; a strategy developed by Sam Walton and carried on by a small group of senior executives led by CEO David Glass. Although recent growth has led Wal-Mart to add more management layers, senior executives strive to maintain its unique culture.


Wal-Mart has been extremely successful in competing in the retail industry by combining service, price, and quality. However, other merchants may object to Wal-Marts entry into their community. Because of its ability to out-price smaller competitors, Wal-Marts stores threaten smaller neighborhood stores which can only survive if they offer merchandise or services unavailable anywhere else. This makes it very hard for small businesses, such as mom-and-pop enterprises, to survive. The increasing opposition indicates that the road ahead for Wal-Mart may not be as smooth as they had planned. This requires Wal-Mart to rethink its expansion strategy since it would not be profitable to operate in an unfriendly community.


The ever-changing market presents continuing challenges to retailers. Wal-Mart has expanded with its Super-centers and Sam’s Club divisions where customers are being offered a wide choice of shopping experiences, but no one operation can capture them all. Therefore, it is necessary for management to define their target market and direct their energies toward solving that specific markets problems.





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If you order your essay from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on School Security (Criminal Justice). What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality School Security (Criminal Justice) paper right on time.

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School Security


During the nineties, Americans across the country witnessed the horror of high school youth go bad. News agencies across the country reported breaking news as each incident occurred. The cities where these incidents occurred became common places of interest, due to the incidents that occurred. Places such as Columbine, Colorado; Fayetteville, Tennessee and Edinboro, Pennsylvania, will never be forgotten (Ortmeier 00). The horrible incidents that occurred involved the senseless wounding and murder of teachers, students, and faculty. Almost every incident involved a handgun, rifle, or shotgun. How these youth obtained these weapons is not the question. The question is, what measures could have been taken at the school to avoid these disasters with out nullifying the 4th amendment? Security measures and devices placed in schools provide a safe school environment that could prevent the threat of further disastrous situations.


School security and safety is a major concern in the United States. Not only is a very important concern but it is also a legal concern. Schools are like safe-havens for kids. A place to go and be themselves, to learn and to be comfortable doing so. The events that took place in the nineties almost toppled these feelings. Parents were on edge not knowing whether their child would be back home safe that day. Providing a physically and psychologically safe school, I feel should be a priority of all school administrations.


Administrators, teachers, parents and the public have a responsibility to ensure that our schools are safe and secure places for our children (Safe Schools). How do we do ensure this? Recent studies indicate, students are three times more likely to be victims of nonfatal serious violent crime away from school than at school (Safe Schools). So if this is the case, why is school safety and security a major concern? It is widely known that students suffer from student crime. Student crime consists of theft, vandalism and drug sales to name a few. With these crimes occurring in our schools it has been found that students seem less safe (Safe Schools). Moore states that in a recent study, percent of respondents report that school safety has a strong impact on academic performance. I feel this a highly important topic to promote school safety and security.


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Providing a safe and secure school that ensures a student will feel comfortable begins with access. Access to the school, I feel, is the most simple form of security. However, the type of structure can make this the most difficult challenge (Key to Security). The most important feeling to establish within the building is if the occupants feel safe. According to Garver utilizing a Facilities Security Worksheet can simplify the decision making process. Garver explains that there is six-security objectives within this thought process. They are authorized access, key control, user friendly, serviceable, audit trail and time zones (Key to Security). Discussing the first and the most basic objective, access control, can be simply achieved. Access control is probably the highest level of security. Garver explains that utilizing this objective authorizes access to a specified area only to selected individuals (Key to Security). If all accesses to the facility were controlled to only allow one major entrance, I feel would be a start for providing a safe school. Obviously, many factors need to be taken into consideration such as emergency exit access. However, todays security technologies make this a very easy task.


Controlling access as previously discussed is just a start in providing a safe and secure school. If you think about the incidents that occurred in the nineties, you will remember that they involved weapons. Once again, how could this have been prevented? Before these incidents occurred, the thought of providing security technology in our schools would never have been heard. It was often considered that doing so would make the school a prison. And the infringement of students rights was often considered. When discussing security technology for school facilities, we are discussing video cameras, metal detectors and mobile communication systems (Security Technologies).


Video cameras can provide students and teachers with a sense of safety and have been proven to be a deterrent to crime (Security Technologies). It is common knowledge that no one wants to be caught on tape. Video cameras provide hard evidence of the crime and it is very easy to prove guilt. In the article School Technologies, it recommends that cameras be placed in cafeterias, parking lots, hallways, computer rooms and areas where valuable equipment is kept.


Metal detectors are another security source of concern. Metal detectors can detect the presence of firearms, knives and weapons. There are pros and cons involved in the use of metal detectors. Building layout and experienced operators are two main factors to consider (Security Technologies). When considering the building layout the students access to the school is important. Long lines while waiting to enter the school could cause problems.


Communications systems are another source of security technology. Communications systems include phones, intercoms, call buttons and duress alarm devices (Security Technologies). Phones provide a means of summoning outside assistance such as police, fire or rescue. Call buttons are used within the classroom as a means for teachers to communicate with the administration office (Security Technologies). And duress alarms are strategically mounted buttons that notify the proper authorities that there is a problem (Security Technologies). Utilizing any or all of these communications systems not only make the school a safer environment but also summons help within minutes.


I have discussed the use of access control, security devices such as metal detectors and video cameras and the use of communications systems. These are just a few basic forms of security that can provide a safe environment for our students and faculty. I feel the most important point to keep in mind when planning school security is to think the worst. Using security assessments and lessons learned from previous incidents will prevent, if not eliminate, further disasters. School administrations cannot believe that wont happen to us. They need to take school security as an important objective in providing a safe environment and secure the thoughts of those in attendance.





Works Cited


Ortmeier, P.J.. Security Management An Introduction. New Jersey Upper Saddle River, 00.


Safe and Secure Schools. Ed. Deborah P. Moore. Oct 000 . InfoTrac. 10 Mar. 00


http//olis.sysadm.suny.edu07/itw/infomark/555/678/064105w7/purl=rc1


_ITOF_0_A671666&dyn=1!xrn_1_0_A671666?sw_aep=central.


Security Technologies Cameras, Metal Detectors, Communication Systems. Ed. School


Planning and Management. Oct 000 . InfoTrac. 10 Mar. 00


http//olis.sysadm.suny.edu07/itw/infomark/555/678/064105w7/purl=rc1


_ITOF_0_A671678&dyn=1!xrn_1_0_A671678?sw_aep=central.


Whats the Key to Your Security. Ed. Lee A. Garver. Oct 000 . InfoTrac. 10 Mar. 00


http//olis.sysadm.suny.edu07/itw/infomark/555/678/064105w7/purl=rc1


_ITOF_0_A671676&dyn=!xrn_4_0_A671676&bkm__4?sw_aep=central.


Please note that this sample paper on School Security (Criminal Justice) is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on School Security (Criminal Justice), we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on School Security (Criminal Justice) will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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What if I were to tell you that a barrel of fun is just waiting to be had by you? Though it is commonly only considered on those precious summer holidays, this easy to organize, costly efficient idea is something everyone looks forward to and enjoys. Yes, I’m obviously referring about hosting your very own BBQ party. Whether it is a grand festival of exhilaration your aiming for, or just a quaint get together with your closest of friends, no one can refuse good food, great fun, and the idea of spending time with others. The only two things to really consider are what to serve, and how to enjoy yourself and your meal. Having a BBQ is a great way experience the joys of friendship.


Upon that exciting moment of brainstorming the idea of having a BBQ, you want to make sure you plan a delicious get together; after all the whole point of having a BBQ is satisfaction. Take it from me; determining what to prepare for you and your guests can be the best part of the “Q” itself. The trip to the grocery store to collect the supplies is, in a way, the inspiring moment of what kind of mood your going to set for the evening. Your decision-making skills must be sharp and good judgment will also play an important factor when selecting your treats to please. Through the process of elimination your stomach usually determines the main entr�e(s) when put in front of your face, whether it be chicken, ribs, hamburgers, or hotdogs, select that tasty meat that will have your guest’s mouths watering. Also, the side dish is just as important, if not more so than the entr�e itself. Select something that will best compliment your meal such as macaroni and cheese, which is always a safe way to go. The other things to ponder are refreshments. Depending on the mood you want to create, beer, sodas, and juices are all fun, safe bet. With this step out of the way, return to the grill and prepare to celebrate.


So the BBQ is underway! Preparing the food for cooking all depends on your own preferences. Seasoning the meat(s) and side dish’s are the backbone to a successful meal as you want to perfect each individual savory flavor that is to offer. Whether the kick in your mouth is from the garlic, hot sauces, BBQ sauces, or any other seasonings you wish to indulge in, consider your guests and their tastes and preferences too. A lot of thought should go into this step. After pampering your soon- to be consumed meal with love and care it’s time to toss it on the grill and cook it up. While the grill takes the spotlight and prepares the food, take this time to mingle with your guests through the act of conversing. Share stories, laugh out loud, and let yourself experience all that your guests have to offer. In no time at all the meal will be ready and compliments will be just around the corner waiting to be given as the consumption takes place. By this time the BBQ party will be in full swing and not a frown will be found at the social gathering.


Hosting a BBQ is the greatest, most simple idea ever! After determining what and how to prepare the meal for you and your guests the only other thing to keep in mind is to have a good time. After all having a BBQ is an excellent way to experience the joys that friendships have to offer and what better way to say “thank you for being a friend” than with the gift of food.


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Envy


Envy, one of the renowned seven deadly sins, is a sin that infects the world in several shapes and forms. Envy is defined as painful or resentful awareness of another’s advantages. Envy can be found almost anywhere you look, and that in itself is a sad fact. Envy is present in the world in a variety of expressions, such as someone wanting what someone else has because it is better than what they have or don’t have. Another instance of envy is taking exception to someone else because they’re more talented than them at something, or smarter or better-looking. It is evident that envy exists in the world because of a number of factors. Stealing what does not belong to you is common representation of envy, because someone has something better and someone else wants it, they resolve their dispute by taking it. Another example of how envy is evident in our society is putting someone else down who is supposedly too good for them. In order to make themselves feel better, or above that person, they put them down and hurt their feelings. Finally, another appearance of envy, which is related to putting someone down, is trying to make someone look bad or embarrass them. This is another tactic used in order to make the lesser person feel better about themselves.


Overall, I feel being envy towards someone for whatever reason doesn’t get you anywhere and if someone continues to be envious it just makes them worse instead of better. The time someone spends being envious, they could use to improve themselves and they wouldn’t have to be envious towards someone else. In my opinion, being envious of others is a horrible characteristic and that everyone should be whoever they are and not someone else. Some effective ways to combat the recurring effects of envy are to remember to be whoever you are and that’s all, because everyone is their own individual and should live their life accordingly. We should keep in mind that nobody is perfect, and that everyone has their own strengths and flaws. If we all learned to look at each other as equals, we could realize how well we could coordinate our lives together, and all live in peace and happiness.


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The key to succeeding in business is simple SALES! SALES! SALES! To generate a sufficient level of sales to make a living, you first need to define the market you are targeting


A target market is a specific group of buyers on whose needs and wants a company focuses its marketing efforts. Together with our research team and database lists of consumers, DCD will find your niche audience. We will target them utilizing the following factors


• Demographics


Age, gender, income, ethnicity, occupation, religion, race, social class, family size;


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• Psychographics


Lifestyles, interests, opinions, behavior, perceptions and attitudes;


• Geographics


Zip codes, city, county and state size, terrain, climate, region, urban, suburban, rural; natural resources;


• Behavioristic Variables


Volume usage, benefit expectations, brand loyalty.


Accurate target market selection is crucial to productive marketing efforts. Products and even companies sometimes fail because marketers do not identify appropriate customer groups at which to aim their efforts. Organizations that try to be all things to all people rarely satisfy the needs of any customer group very well. Identification and analysis of a target market provide a foundation on which a marketing mix can be developed


The key to succeeding in business is simple SALES! SALES! SALES! To generate a sufficient level of sales to make a living, you first need to define the market you are targeting


A target market is a specific group of buyers on whose needs and wants a company focuses its marketing efforts. Together with our research team and database lists of consumers, DCD will find your niche audience. We will target them utilizing the following factors


• Demographics


Age, gender, income, ethnicity, occupation, religion, race, social class, family size;


• Psychographics


Lifestyles, interests, opinions, behavior, perceptions and attitudes;


• Geographics


Zip codes, city, county and state size, terrain, climate, region, urban, suburban, rural; natural resources;


• Behavioristic Variables


Volume usage, benefit expectations, brand loyalty.


Accurate target market selection is crucial to productive marketing efforts. Products and even companies sometimes fail because marketers do not identify appropriate customer groups at which to aim their efforts. Organizations that try to be all things to all people rarely satisfy the needs of any customer group very well. Identification and analysis of a target market provide a foundation on which a marketing mix can be developed


A target market is a specific group of buyers on whose needs and wants a company focuses its marketing efforts. Together with our research team and database lists of consumers, DCD will find your niche audience. We will target them utilizing the following factors


• Demographics


Age, gender, income, ethnicity, occupation, religion, race, social class, family size;


• Psychographics


The key to succeeding in business is simple SALES! SALES! SALES! To generate a sufficient level of sales to make a living, you first need to define the market you are targeting


A target market is a specific group of buyers on whose needs and wants a company focuses its marketing efforts. Together with our research team and database lists of consumers, DCD will find your niche audience. We will target them utilizing the following factors


• Demographics


Age, gender, income, ethnicity, occupation, religion, race, social class, family size;


• Psychographics


Lifestyles, interests, opinions, behavior, perceptions and attitudes;


• Geographics


Zip codes, city, county and state size, terrain, climate, region, urban, suburban, rural; natural resources;


• Behavioristic Variables


Volume usage, benefit expectations, brand loyalty.


Accurate target market selection


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William Shakespeare, in his Sonnet 7 and Sonnet 116, sets forth his


vision of the unchanging, persistent and immovable nature of true love.


According to Shakespeare, love is truly till death do us part, and possibly


beyond. Physical infirmity, the ravages of age, or even ones partners


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inconstancy have no effect upon the affections of one who sincerely loves. His


notion of love is not a romantic one in which an idealized vision of a lover is


embraced. Instead he recognizes the weaknesses to which we, as humans, are


subject, but still asserts that love conquers all.


Shakespeare uses an array of figurative language to convey his message,


including metaphor and personification. Thus, in sonnet 7, he compares himself


to a grove of trees in early winter, When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do


hang Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,... These lines seem to


refer to an aged, balding man, bundled unsuccessfully against the weather.


Perhaps, in a larger sense, they refer to that time in our lives when our


faculties are diminished and we can no longer easily withstand the normal blows


of life. He regards his body as a temple- a Bare ruined choir[s]- where sweet


birds used to sing, but it is a body now going to ruin.


In Sonnet 116, love is seen as the North Star, the fixed point of


guidance to ships lost upon the endless sea of the world. It is the point of


reference and repose in this stormy, troubled world, an ever-fixed mark That


looks on tempests and is never shaken;...


He personifies the coming of the end of his life as night, which is


described as Deaths second self in sonnet 7. However, in Sonnet 116 death


appears in the guise of the grim reaper, Father Time, who mows down all of our


youth, but still cannot conquer love- Loves not Times fool, though rosy lips


and cheeks within his bending sickles compass come;...


While both poems make use of figurative language, sonnet 7 uses far


more imagery than sonnet 116. Sonnet 7 uses the image of the close of mans


life as a wintry grove with the few remaining leaves shivering in the cold. A


persons later years are the twilight of life, to which the night of death


inevitably follows. Further, the end of life is compared to the embers of a


dying fire, In me thou seest the glowing of such fire That on the ashes of his


youth doth lie,.... All of these images express the fading light of a life in


decline. The short, dark days of winter, the last rays at sunset and the


glowing remnants beneath the ashes all evoke the beauty of a once vibrant life


which is coming to a close.


In contrast, sonnet 116 presents two images. The first is that of the


exploring seafarer, out on stormy, uncertain seas with the North star of love as


his only guide through them. Even though the seafarer attempts to


scientifically measure the worth of this love to him, it is immeasurable- It is


the star to every wandering bark, Whose worths unknown, although his height be


taken.


The second image in sonnet 116 is that of Time mowing down our rosy-


cheeked youth. Even so, however, love is not ended by our brief time on this


earth, but lasts until Judgment Day- Love alters not with his [Times] brief


hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom.


Finally, the tone of the two poems offers the greatest contrast between


them. Sonnet 7 has a narrator who is somewhat detached and accepting of his


infirmities. The entire main body of the sonnet, lines one through twelve, is a


physical description of the narrators decline, which is related in a soft and


melancholy voice. It is only the concluding couplet which brings home the


message that the strength of true love is shown when it exists in the face of


the narrators inevitable decline.


On the other hand, sonnet 116 has a passionate, didactic narrator. He


orders and exhorts the reader. He does not address the object of his affections,


as does the narrator of sonnet 7, but directly addresses his audience.- Let no


man to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. This narrator uses his


concluding couplet almost as an ironic aside. You can almost see him speaking


to his audience from behind the back of his hand- If this be error and upon me


proved, I never writ , nor no man ever loved. There seems little likelihood


that Shakespeare thought that he had to worry about losing that bet.


In conclusion, while the two sonnets differ greatly in tone, differ


somewhat in imagery, and have some similarity and some difference in their use


of figurative language, both express the universal desire for unconditional,


never ending love. Sonnet 7 seems to say that even such a love ends at the


grave, though.- To love that well which thou must leave ere long. Sonnet 116


bears it out even to the end of the world. Either poem offers a vision of love


to which we can aspire.





Please note that this sample paper on Comparison of Shakespeare's Sonnet 73 and Sonnet 116 is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Comparison of Shakespeare's Sonnet 73 and Sonnet 116, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Comparison of Shakespeare's Sonnet 73 and Sonnet 116 will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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If you order your essay from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Comparison of Shakespeare's Sonnet 73 and Sonnet 116. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Comparison of Shakespeare's Sonnet 73 and Sonnet 116 paper right on time.

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William Shakespeare, in his Sonnet 7 and Sonnet 116, sets forth his


vision of the unchanging, persistent and immovable nature of true love.


According to Shakespeare, love is truly till death do us part, and possibly


beyond. Physical infirmity, the ravages of age, or even ones partners


Order College Papers on Comparison of Shakespeare's Sonnet 73 and Sonnet 116




inconstancy have no effect upon the affections of one who sincerely loves. His


notion of love is not a romantic one in which an idealized vision of a lover is


embraced. Instead he recognizes the weaknesses to which we, as humans, are


subject, but still asserts that love conquers all.


Shakespeare uses an array of figurative language to convey his message,


including metaphor and personification. Thus, in sonnet 7, he compares himself


to a grove of trees in early winter, When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do


hang Upon those boughs which shake against the cold,... These lines seem to


refer to an aged, balding man, bundled unsuccessfully against the weather.


Perhaps, in a larger sense, they refer to that time in our lives when our


faculties are diminished and we can no longer easily withstand the normal blows


of life. He regards his body as a temple- a Bare ruined choir[s]- where sweet


birds used to sing, but it is a body now going to ruin.


In Sonnet 116, love is seen as the North Star, the fixed point of


guidance to ships lost upon the endless sea of the world. It is the point of


reference and repose in this stormy, troubled world, an ever-fixed mark That


looks on tempests and is never shaken;...


He personifies the coming of the end of his life as night, which is


described as Deaths second self in sonnet 7. However, in Sonnet 116 death


appears in the guise of the grim reaper, Father Time, who mows down all of our


youth, but still cannot conquer love- Loves not Times fool, though rosy lips


and cheeks within his bending sickles compass come;...


While both poems make use of figurative language, sonnet 7 uses far


more imagery than sonnet 116. Sonnet 7 uses the image of the close of mans


life as a wintry grove with the few remaining leaves shivering in the cold. A


persons later years are the twilight of life, to which the night of death


inevitably follows. Further, the end of life is compared to the embers of a


dying fire, In me thou seest the glowing of such fire That on the ashes of his


youth doth lie,.... All of these images express the fading light of a life in


decline. The short, dark days of winter, the last rays at sunset and the


glowing remnants beneath the ashes all evoke the beauty of a once vibrant life


which is coming to a close.


In contrast, sonnet 116 presents two images. The first is that of the


exploring seafarer, out on stormy, uncertain seas with the North star of love as


his only guide through them. Even though the seafarer attempts to


scientifically measure the worth of this love to him, it is immeasurable- It is


the star to every wandering bark, Whose worths unknown, although his height be


taken.


The second image in sonnet 116 is that of Time mowing down our rosy-


cheeked youth. Even so, however, love is not ended by our brief time on this


earth, but lasts until Judgment Day- Love alters not with his [Times] brief


hours and weeks, But bears it out even to the edge of doom.


Finally, the tone of the two poems offers the greatest contrast between


them. Sonnet 7 has a narrator who is somewhat detached and accepting of his


infirmities. The entire main body of the sonnet, lines one through twelve, is a


physical description of the narrators decline, which is related in a soft and


melancholy voice. It is only the concluding couplet which brings home the


message that the strength of true love is shown when it exists in the face of


the narrators inevitable decline.


On the other hand, sonnet 116 has a passionate, didactic narrator. He


orders and exhorts the reader. He does not address the object of his affections,


as does the narrator of sonnet 7, but directly addresses his audience.- Let no


man to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. This narrator uses his


concluding couplet almost as an ironic aside. You can almost see him speaking


to his audience from behind the back of his hand- If this be error and upon me


proved, I never writ , nor no man ever loved. There seems little likelihood


that Shakespeare thought that he had to worry about losing that bet.


In conclusion, while the two sonnets differ greatly in tone, differ


somewhat in imagery, and have some similarity and some difference in their use


of figurative language, both express the universal desire for unconditional,


never ending love. Sonnet 7 seems to say that even such a love ends at the


grave, though.- To love that well which thou must leave ere long. Sonnet 116


bears it out even to the end of the world. Either poem offers a vision of love


to which we can aspire.





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“I for Isobel suggests that books can be both a source of solace and an excuse for avoiding social realities and responsibilities” Discuss.


The use of literature as a source of solace is strongly portrayed throughout I for Isobel, showing how it can provide comfort, support, relief, and consolation and still be enjoyable. The novel also demonstrates how books can be used as an avoidance technique of both social realities and responsibilities, but more particularly it demonstrates how Isobel shuts out the abusive environment that surrounds her. However, it is this self-seclusion and the psychological abuse during her childhood that causes Isobel to develop problems with relating to other people, and hence after her mother dies she continues to isolate herself in her novels and experiences difficulties with dealing with people.


Isobel learns at a very young age to rely heavily on her novels to provide her with the support, relief and comfort that she needs to continue with her daily tasks due to the overpowering psychological torment that her mother causes her. The novels and Isobel’s passion for reading is what pulled her through her abusive childhood. “Bed was Isobel’s kingdom; it was always a comfort to arrive there at last … (and) slid(e) behind the curtain of the dark into her private world … birthdays, injustices, parents all vanished.” The solace Isobel seeks in novel can also be seen through the way she steals the little book because “there was no doubt about it, the calm she felt flowed into her from the solid little faded book … she put it down panic threatened. She picked it up and was calm” it worked like a “wand” and she used it “book against telephone box” to prevent her from becoming the “phone freak” again. Reading also enables Isobel to relax and feel secure; she doesn’t have to be concerned about what other people are thinking of her or what is the appropriate behavior to use and words to say because books have no expectations of such things and aren’t judging her every move.


Reading also allows Isobel to avoid social realities and responsibilities in some ways, as evident when Isobel secludes herself from her fellow boarders by reading so as to avoid being asked to join them in their nightly ritual game of bridge. Or the times when she hides in an old chair on the back verandah with her head in a novel so she doesn’t have to play with Caroline and Joanne Mansell, or be asked to go swimming with Margaret. But more importantly, apart from the enjoyment Isobel finds in reading, it allows her to escape for a while from the agony of the psychological abuse that she’s forced to faced every day, especially from her mother. It’s a place where she can retreat to, a world without expectations and uncertainties and where “birthdays, injustices, parents all vanished.”


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However, through continually retreating from others in early childhood, as well as the daily exposure to psychological abuse, Isobel doesn’t developed her social skills, like communication and interpretation of others intentions. May Callaghan was the major cause of the emotional abuse, she used it to such an extent that she attempted to deny Isobel of any form of pleasure by punishing and criticising her at every opportunity. At such a young age this had an enormous effect on Isobel’s self-esteem and confidence among others, causing her to seek solace in novels and use them to avoid having conversations or interacting with people. Like the way she feels that she “carried an invisible knife, wounding people without being aware of it” or when Olive tells her “ ‘try not to mind Mr. Richard. He means no harm, you know.’ She must mean, that he meant harm but couldn’t do none.” Such is the extent of negativity embedded within Isobel that she sees the worst of every situation without realising that’s what she’s doing and this heightens her uncertainty of how to behave or the correct thing to say, “two ways to do it and our Isobel would get it wrong.” So while books were a source of solace for Isobel and an excuse for avoiding unfavorable situations, they, along with the emotional abuse she suffered, caused greater problems for her as she hadn’t had the experiences need to develop proper social skills and become comfortable communicating with other people.


While it is very clearly expressed by Witting throughout the novel that books can be a source of solace, to use them as an excuse for avoiding social realities and responsibilities is considerably less defined. But rather, it demonstrates how novels can be used to escape for a brief period of time from the harsh, cruel, complicated or hectic environment that can either surround or overpower one’s life. However, too much solitude during the developing years can have drastic effects on the ability to interact and socialise with others, as shown through Isobel’s inability to relate to others. Towards the end of the novel there is a sense that she may be finally overcoming this problem as she begins to realise her true identity. And perhaps in the future the need to take solace in novels will diminish to a more appropriate amount as she gains confidence with communicating with others and dealing with social realities and responsibilities.





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It is a hard topic. Gibsons are alot better, But only buy the humbuckers they put on it. if want to get a cheap deal you just buy an epiphone then put some awesome humbuckers on and it would sound like the real thing, But it still wont be the a Gibson. So if you have got a few Thousand dollers in your pocket buy a gibson, But it ya only got a 5 hundred get ya self a epiphone just as good but still not the real thing.


If you are a greeny/ tree huger, dont buy an epiphone because it is probaly made out of rain forest.


What strings to use on a les paul epiphone or gibson, The best quilaty would have to be Ernie Ball, People such as Eric Clapton, Jimmy page, Slash, Puddle of mud, The eagles, Blink 18, Pennywise, Incubus, Good Charlotte, System Of a Down and alot of other artisits, If ya want to now more artists buy a set of ernie ball strings and have a good night read about artists who use ernie ball strings.


Effects pedals, Nuffin comes past the Digi Techs 400. Dosent really matter which one you use.


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But before you buy your ambition of a GIBSON guitar, Do a blindfold test and see what feels better. You never know you might end up with an old Ashton or something like an old as samick.


If you want to be a better player just play whole songs not just the intro to stairway to heaven. Do the whole thing! And even better join a band and your rythem would be good with a good drummer keeping up the tempo.


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My parents met in Papua New Guinea while working on a copper mine. Not something that I’m particularly proud of, but if this is the confessions page I’d better start with that. You know the sort - Dad was in heavy construction, built roads and airports and water treatment plants and the family occasionally left the comforts of home to live near his projects in the jungle of Indonesia or Africa and stayed home while he was off to the more dangerous (less family friendly) parts of the world � Saudi Arabia, Cambodia, the Gulf after the war ... So, I had the travel bug from early on but mainly knew that I had to help out. Volunteer is the key word here people.


But I would do things differently. Oh, yes. Balance out the crimes of the father so to speak. He was in old school construction. You may have read a report or two about the pure destruction left in their path. OK, maybe a little dramatic. But really, there was no concept of participatory processes, of asking the community what they wanted, throughout the ‘50’s to ‘80’s. No concept of putting yourself out for the benefit of the community. Of all the countries in all the worlds this man has lived, he wouldn’t even know how to swear in anything other than English. And don’t get me started on the environmental problems left for the people to deal with. I have nightmares about them. So bad that as an old man (which he is now), my father, the man who used to run over “hippies” for fun in the ‘70s, even said “Yeah, well … we didn’t think about the state of the river as we pumped tons of soot into it.” Or of the people who would have to use it for bathing, drinking, cleaning for generations to come? “We probably could’ve done things differently, but we just didn’t know.” That being said, they did honestly think they were helping out. Get some clothes on those people and give them a job and all the problems will be solved.


So, needless to say, I came over here with every intention of being the Queen of Cultural Appropriateness. That’s part of what it’s all about in the end. But … and here it comes … it’s really difficult to be culturally appropriate all the time. And tiring. I can’t handle more than a week of it in one go and I need to come home to my room and just roll around in inappropriateness (figuratively people). And that’s just after dhal baat in the village.


What do you do when you just don’t agree with certain aspects? As a woman and a feminist and a human rights activist, yet desperately trying to be culturally appropriate, do I have to just be quiet and smile through it? At what point can I just stand up and say I’ve had enough? When I’m invited over to someone’s house and served by their 10 year old slave? Ah, man! That’s just wrong, but I really like that family and don’t want to insult them. What to do?


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Luckily I’m working at a women’s rights organization (ABC/Nepal) and it’s filled with strong, amazing Nepali women so I do know that there are lots of things they speak up about. Like prescribed gender roles, domestic violence, favouring boys etc. There are hundreds of people out there who are trying to stop child labour. But still … to wear the crown of cultural appropriateness, I may have to rethink those conversations about things like homosexuality, boyfriends, and staying out late.





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Introduction


Hong Kong, like many other places in the world, has a rapidly ageing population. The current demographic trends suggest an imminent surge in the number of retirees without retirement protection, calling for more and more public money to relieve their plight. If assistance to the retired poor is not automatic, great human suffering will ensue and the government cannot afford to bear the cost of the resultant social unrest. Apparently, the need for retirement protection is not in dispute. But the form of such protection has been debated for years. This project examines the three most important options, namely the Central Provident Fund (CPF), the Old-Aged Pension Scheme (OPS), and the Mandatory Provident Fund (MPF). The examination in light of rate of return, stability and sustainability, equity, coverage, political attractiveness and effect on economic growth finds that MPF is a suitable, if not optimal, option to Hong Kong. Following a brief description of the MPF system, we discuss the main problems facing the scheme and some improvements are proposed against these problems.


Background of MPF Schemes


All along, Hong Kong adhered to the principle of positive noninterventionism as its official policy. Apart from civil servants and staff of some large companies, Hong Kong had no formal retirement protection system in place. The problem of retirement-protection was first identified by the Legislative Council (LegCo) to be a matter worthy of consideration in 166. In that year and subsequently in 175, there were debates over whether a Singaporean type of CPF should be created in Hong Kong. The proposal was once again extensively debated in the LegCo in 187. However, the


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government had made it clear that it would not consider the CPF to be an alternative. The main reason for this stance was that the government did not want to involve in managing a large sum of money, which violates its traditional non-intervention policy.


In 11, the LegCo members urged the government to set up a CPF or other forms of compulsory retirement schemes. While the proposal was just like another futile attempt to set up a retirement system in Hong Kong, the government responded the proposal by initiating a Working Group on Retirement Protection. In 1, the working group introduced a consultation paper entitled A Community-wide Retirement Protection System. It proposed the establishment of a compulsory pension system in Hong Kong. Although the LegCo voted for the CPF, the government maintained its stand against it and the private provident fund scheme was still the governments working proposal.


However, the government changed its stance in 1 and proposed an Old-Aged Pension Scheme (OPS). The OPS proposal initiated a flood of debate. Proponents supported for the OPS because it provided immediate benefits for todays elderly and had the effect on income redistribution. One the other hand, opponents opined that the OPS would benefit the old people today, but the costs would only be paid in the future. The public opinion was too divided by the plan. Thoughts of a conspiracy theory suggested that it was a by-product during the tense period of the Sino-British relationship.


In 15, the government announced abandonment of the OPS and introduced a mandatory, privately managed provident fund system. In 8 March 15, a motion on MPF was passed by the LegCo. In August 15, the Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes Ordinance was enacted. The subsidiary legislation was passed in the Provisional LegCo on 1 April 18 and the MPF Authority was set up in September 18. This was regarded as a landmark in the history of retirement protection in Hong Kong.


Demographic Structure of Hong Kong


In 160s, Hong Kong was still a very youthful society. A large proportion of the population consisted of migrants, the majority of whom were young men. The population aged 60 years and over had barely changed from the 10s level of 4 percent. However, the population of Hong Kong has been ageing since the 170s. The following table shows that there has been a marked growth in the size of the elderly population in Hong Kong.


Hong Kong Population Projections (in thousand)


11 16 001 006 011


Total population 5686 5885 6081 68 6486


Rate of increase .% .5% .% .% .%


Age 65+ population 500 610 705 76 7


Age 65+ rate of increases 17.% .0% 15.6% 8.1% 4.1%


Elderly ratio 8.8% 10.4% 11.6% 1.1% 1.%


Source Census and Statistics Department, Hong Kong Population 11-011 (Hong Kong Government Printer 1)


It is obvious that the elderly population will be growing much more rapidly than the overall population in the next two decades. We have also seen a persistently declining


trend in total fertility rate. In 165, the total fertility rate was 4.5 percent. It then declined to . in 170, to .0 in 180, to 1.4 in 11, and to 1.1 in 16. In parallel, longevity in Hong Kong is increasing. In 18 life expectancy at birth had already reached seventy-five years. In 18, it rose to seventy-eight years and in 16 to seventy-nine. These facts have inevitably contributed to the ageing of the Hong Kong population. In 17, people aged 65 and above accounted for about 10 percent of the population. This proportion is estimated to increase to 1 percent by the year 016, and to 0 percent by 06.


The demographic ageing means that in the future there will be fewer young people who can pay taxes to support the old, namely declining support ratio. These factors have important implications on the retirement-protection in Hong Kong.


Examination of CPF, OPS & MPF


In the past decades, Hong Kong has considered the CPF, OPS, & MPF to be the retirement-protection programme for Hong Kong. The following will examine these programmes by using different parameters.


CPF


The CPF is a forced saving system. People must contribute a specified portion of their income to a fund designated for providing pension. The fund is managed by the government or government delegated private companies. Each person contributing to the fund has an individual account.


Rate of Return


The publicly managed funds do not yield high rates of return. It is because there is lack of competition when the government is the sale manager of the fund. It has no incentive to look for more profitable investment opportunities.


Stability and Sustainability


CPF is a publicly administrated programme. It provides a better sense of security than


private savings. Monthly payment under this scheme available for retirement depends on rate of return, length of working period, growth rate of real wage and not affected by changes on demographic structure. Thus, the scheme is sustainable.


Equity


All CPF subscribers have their individuals account, so it is equity to subscribers. However, there is no effect on income redistribution.


Coverage


Only retired employees, who are CPF subscribers, are covered by the scheme.


Political Attractiveness


An important advantage of the CPF is that it is a government administered system, it thus provides a better guarantee as people will have a great security during their retirement years.


Effect on Economic Growth


CPF has a positive effect on saving. CPF forces people to prepare for her retirement well ahead of time. The higher rate of saving means faster accumulation of capital, and this in turn raises the economic growth rate. However, a significant proportion of societys wealth under the control of the government may limit opportunities for the development of entrepreneurial spirit in society which plays an important role in the


income growth of a free market economy. Thus, in the long run, CPF may have a negative impact on peoples income.


OPS


The OPS follows the form of the pay-as-you-go retirement system. It is essentially a welfare payment to the elderly financed by taxation. Monthly pensions will be paid to eligible senior citizens, to be funded by contributions from employers and employees. Thus, the proceeds are not saved but are rather used immediately for pension payments.


Rate of Return


Population structure and rate of wage growth are the two important factors to determine the rate of return. When the support ratio increases, then more people can pay taxes. Similarly, the higher the rate of wage growth, the higher the average persons pension benefits. Obviously, the opposite is true if the population is ageing and the wage rate is stagnant or even declining.


Stability and Sustainability


OPS depends on the future generations incomes for financing and demographic change. It will be subject to the risk of instability. When population is becoming younger and younger over time, more people can gain. However, the system is not sustainable when population is ageing quickly. To maintain a decent level of benefits,


the government may need to impose a higher tax rate so as to balance the budget. Or the pension benefit may be cut.


Equity


OPS has a principle of collective support for the aged. It has an element of income redistribution in favour of the poor. That is, the poorest members of society receive transfer from the better-off members. However, it is often argued that it is inequity when those who contributing for fewer years is entitled to the same benefits as those contributing for more years.


Coverage


It benefits all elderly people who are aged 60 or above including retirees, housewives etc. regardless they are subscribers or not. Thus, it provides immediate relief for the aged of today.


Political Attractiveness


From politicians point of view, the OPS is attractive as it has the benefit of relieving the aged people of today immediately.


Effect on Economic Growth


The OPS may reduce the economys saving rate. When taxpayer expects that pensions will be paid to him in the future, he will reduce his savings for retirement life. In


parallel, since the retirement benefits are not linked to tax payments, people will have less incentive to work. It will likely reduce the long-run economic growth rate.


MPF


The MPF is a privately managed system. It requires both employers and employees to contribute a certain amount into an individual account. The contributions must be preserved until the employee attains the retirement age.


Rate of Return


The privately managed funds may yield higher rate of return. The rationale behind this assumption is that fund managers, who are subject to market competition, will adopt a


more flexible approach in investment in order to maximize clients returns. Evidently, according to LUI, from 18 to 14, the median average nominal rate of return of a representative sample of Hong Kong pension funds was 16.7 percent per year. Inflation in this period was 8.8 percent per year, giving a real rate of return of 7.5 percent per year. Taking a conservative approach, the real rate of return may achieve 4 percent under the MPF scheme.


Stability and Sustainability


MPF adopts trusteeship arrangement in which assets accumulated in the scheme are held and invested by its trustee. While the MPF is run by private companies, it is subject to higher risk, as compared with government administration. Under the MPF, each subscriber has an individual account and the benefits for the retirement is positively related to contribution. Thus, it will not be affected by the demographic structure and support ratio.


Equity


MPF is equitable to all scheme members, as the amount of accrued benefit is directly related to the contributions made. However, there is no income redistribution built into the system to provide immediate relief for the elderly poor.


Coverage


Only the subscribers are covered by the scheme.


Political Attractiveness


The government is not involved in the operation of the scheme. It also makes no guarantee on the invested assets security and no provision to protect the low-income group. All these render the scheme to be less attractive.


Effect on Economic Growth


Under the MPF, retirement benefits are anchored to contribution, so people will have incentive to work. It is good for economic growth. Similarly, the accumulated assets to be invested by private investment houses would give an incentive to the market. While the fund managers would have to compete by virtue of their performance in order to win the shares of the funds, they would be eager to exploit opportunities. It may have a positive impact on economic growth.


Feasibility of these Schemes in Hong Kong


The above examination finds that different retirement protection systems have their advantages and disadvantages. No system is perfect. In comparing the above three alternatives, it is found that the publicly managed CPF scheme is not an attractive option. It is because of its poor performance in terms of rate of return and contribution to economic growth. In fact, the CPF in Singapore has become a multi-purpose scheme. Instead of solely a pension scheme, members are now allowed to make use of their saving in the scheme before retirement to finance investment. In other words, retirement protection is no longer CPFs most important objective.


In comparing, OPS is appeared to be the optimal option. The administrative cost of this scheme is low and it covers all elderly people. More importantly, it has the income redistribution element. However, the success of the scheme depends largely on the number of younger people exceeds that of older people for every generation and the future generations incomes for financing. The demographic structure of Hong Kong severely constrains the viability of OPS to be implemented in Hong Kong. It renders the scheme to be unsustainable. The above findings detail that we have to pay the price in the future, that is to increase tax rate or to cut pension benefit.


MPF also has the disadvantages of no income redistributive element, lack of government involvement and etc. It may be a workable, if not optimal, option for Hong Kong employees. The privately managed scheme may offer a better rate of return than the publicly managed CPF. Comparing with OPS, the fully-funded scheme is more sustainable. It is a salient element for a retirement protection scheme. In addition, the scheme has a positive effect on economic growth. All these elements make the scheme to be a viable option for Hong Kong. However, the scheme is not free of problems. We will discuss in the following paragraphs.


Brief Description Of MPF


The MPF system is an employment-related contributory system, under which members of the workforce aged between 18 and 65 are required to participate in and make contributions to registered MPF schemes, unless specifically exempt under the Ordinance or unless employed for less than 60 days.


The employee is required to contribute 5 percent of his or her monthly income and employer has to match this amount. An employee earning less than the minimum level of income ($4,000 per month) is not required to contribute but the employee must contribute 5 percent of the employees income.


All contributions to a scheme must be fully and immediately vested in the scheme member. All benefits derived from MPF contributions must be preserved until the scheme member attains the retirement aged of 65, or cease employment and attains the age of 60. However, benefits will be paid before a scheme member attains retirement age by reasons of death, total incapacity and permanent departure from Hong Kong. The accrued benefits of an employees can be transferred to other scheme when the employee changes job. However, an employee can opt to leave the accrued benefits in another account in the previous master trust scheme.


Employees mandatory contributions are tax deductible, subject to a limit of HK$1,000 per annum. Employers MPF contributions are also tax deductible to the extent that they do not exceed 15 percent of the employees yearly enrolment.


The main types of MPF schemes are as follows


l Master trust schemes- open to employees of more than one employer, and self-employed persons;


l Employer sponsored schemes- restricted to the employees of an employer or its associate only; and


l Industry schemes- restricted to the employees and self-employed persons of prescribed industries.


All MPF schemes must be established under trust arrangement and governed by Hong Kong Law. Scheme assets will be managed by trustees who must be a registered trust company, meeting capital requirements of HK$150 million in capital and net assets, have a substantial presence in Hong Kong, have directors who are fit and proper persons. The trustee or the appointed investment manager will be responsible for investment of the scheme.


Under the scheme, the following groups of persons are exempt from joining the MPF schemes


1. Employees and self-employed persons who have attained 64 years of age;


. Domestic employees;


. Self-employed hawkers;


4. People covered by statutory pension and provident fund scheme;


5. Members of occupational retirement schemes;


6. People from overseas who enter Hong Kong for employment for less than one year, or who are covered by overseas retirement schemes; and


7. Employees of the European Union Office of the European Commission in Hong Kong.


Problems Facing the MPF Schemes


Governments Involvement


There is little government commitment or involvement in the scheme. Under the existing arrangement, the MPF Authority is responsible for regulate and supervise the MPF system. The government only provides the framework on the operation of the system and then adopts an off-hand approach from the scheme. This arrangement will make the public to have less confident on the system.


Income Redistribution Element


The MPF system provides no immediate relief to todays elderly people. It was recognized by the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong SAR in his 1 Policy Address that it will take some time before the retired population can enjoy the full effects of the MPF Scheme. However, he had made no commitment to cater for the elderly retirees who are not covered by this scheme.


Assests Security Problem


Security problem of the invested assets is one of the major problems facing the MPF system. Any losses in MPF investment due to fraud or excessive risk exposure could give rise to a distrust of the scheme and could stir up a sense of discontentment with the government or social unrest.


Protection for Low-income Group


The MPF system provides insufficient protection to the low-income group. Even though employee earning less than $4,000 per month need not to contribute to the fund, the employers contribution could hardly maintain the employees retirement life. Moreover, this segment of employee changes job frequently, the cost involves in account transfer would deplete the future benefit.


Employer Based Scheme


MPF schemes are employer based instead of employee based. It means that employees have to join the schemes that their employers have chosen for them. However, employers and employees may have different interpretation on a good scheme. Since the accrued benefits in the MPF belong to employees, doubts are cast over whether employers are motivated to choose the best managed scheme for their staff.


Accountability of MPF Authority


Most people are concerned about the expenditure of the MPF Authority, its accountability and its composition. Being a statutory body responsible for supervising a retirement protection for the whole employees in the territory, people would expect that the Authority would be operated in a fair and cost-effective manners.


Education & Publicity Programme


There is not enough publicity programme and education to enlighten employers, employees of their rights and obligations under the MPF scheme. It will hinder the implementation of the system.


Administrative Fee


Employees are often concerned that they would be coerced to pay too much administrative fee. To compete for the market share, the MPF trustees may spent large amount on advertisement and promotion. These costs might finally be transferred to subscribers.


Suggestions


Governments Involvement


The government should be more committed to the scheme. Financially, the government should inject more fund into the MPF Authority in order to reduce burden. In addition, the government should act as a guarantor of the scheme. The main responsibility of this role is to provide financial back-up and ensure the minimum rate of return. It could help to gain public confident on the scheme, especially in the wake of the Asian financial turmoil.


Income Redistribution Element


The government should provide immediate relief for the elderly poor. Since the MPF has no redistributive element, the government should set up a viable supplemental retirement-protection mechanism. At present, there are two main vehicles of welfare support for the elderly. The first is the Comprehensive Social Security Assistant (CSSA) programme and the second is Social Security Allowance (SSA). However, the


degree of support available from each of these is relatively low. Since it will take a long time before MPF to become effective, the government should increase the benefits of these schemes. In parallel, the criteria for passing CSSAs means test should be relaxed with a view to making more elderly people to be eligible. While the government has set up a scheme for retirement protection for the future generation, it should not deprive the right of such protection for the elderly of today.


Assests Security


The government should adopt a strict control over the MPF trustees. The control measures should include the quality of fund managers, combination of investment, rate of return etc. To provide better security of the invested assets, apart from the industry insurance and Compensation Fund, the government should bear the responsibility of setting up a supplementary safety net to indemnify losses due to misfeasance or illegal conduct. On the other hand, the maximum ratio of assets invested in foreign countries should be reduced from the current 70 percent to 50 percent to avoid the risk. Moreover, MPF trustees should not be allowed to contact out their job to other companies.


Protection for Low-income Group


The retirement protection for low income group should be enhanced. Under the MPF system, employees earning less than $4,000 per month are exempt from contribution, but employers have to contribute 5 percent of the employees income to the scheme. Obviously, the retirement protection for this segment of worker is inadequate. To improve protection for the low-income workers, the government should increase the contribution ratio of the employer from 5 percent to 7 percent, and the government should pay the remaining percent on behalf of the employees. Since the number of job changes among low income people is higher than average, it would result in many scattered accounts. However, the transfer of account would cost the employees too much. To reduce the burden, the government should regulate to waive the transfer charges for the low-income employees. In addition, the trustees should take the responsibility to remind the scheme members to transfer or consolidate their accounts at the time of job changes.


Employees Based Scheme


Employees should be allowed to participate in choosing the MPF scheme. As the employees have a stake in the scheme, they will be more motivated to choice the best managed scheme for themselves. Under the market mechanism, the minimized restriction of free choice would make the inferior service providers hard to survive.


Accountability of MPF Authority


MPF Authority should increase the transparency of its operation. Being a self-financing government regulate body, its expenditure should be kept to a minimal by ways of slim establishment. To improve transparency, the accounts and reports submitted by trustees should be disclose to the employees regularly. Members of the Authority should be required to declare their respective interests in order to avoid conflict of interests.


Education & Publicity Programme


The MPF Authority and the government should launch education and publicity programmes to enable the general public to acquire sufficient information about the MPF. The scheme guidelines or code of practice should be produced and issued to the retirement schemes industry to make them fully understand the systems standards and requirements and the industrys role.


Administrative Fees


The government should monitor the administrative fees charged by the trustees in order to avoid abuse charging. The government may employ a point deducting system, any reported malfunctioning or overcharging of the trustees should be inspected by an individual committee. When the complaint is found valid, action should be taken to deduct the point of the company or debarred the company from joining the scheme. More importantly, the government should streamline the procedures of the scheme and set up a mechanism to facilitate the operation of the scheme in order to avoid any unnecessary costs.


Conclusions


The rapidly greying population of Hong Kong makes the retirement protection one of the most critical social issues in the city. Against this population profile, we have discussed three main retirement protection options, namely CPF, OPS, and MPF. The CPF, represents only a form of forced savings, has the deficiencies of low rate of return and may has negative effect on economic growth. Although the OPS has the advantage of income redistribution, the fundamental difficulty of the OPS is that it is unsustainable in the long run because of the decline of support ratio. If the tax rate does not go up over time, the implicit rate of return would be too low.


Alternatively, the MPF is found to be a suitable option, if not optimal, to Hong Kong.


It is financially sustainable, simple and fair. It is equitable to all scheme members as the accrued benefit is pegged to the contributions made. It is cost-effective as the MPF scheme are privately managed under a free competition environment. Competition tends to increase investment returns and reduce costs, which will benefit scheme members ultimately. However, the weaknesses of the MPF are as apparent as its advantages. To improve the system, this project has suggested that the government should play a more active role in the scheme. A supplemental programme should be developed to cater for the elderly people who are not covered by the scheme and the low income group. To provide a better security to the assets, government should keep a on-going monitor of the scheme providers and act as a guarantor to provide a safety


net mechanism for the scheme. The operation of the MPF Authority should be under close surveillance with a view to enhancing its transparency and ensure cost-efficiency.


The MPF is now official and will start operations in 000, it will serve as the foundation of building a robust system of retirement protection. Thus, it is important for the governments commitment and involvement to the scheme. In addition, the continual review of the scheme and secure public support are important. Without these elements, the scheme would not be a success.





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Bulimics have fears and concerns of treatment and help. There are many ways to help a bulimic through many different therapies. There is cognitive behavioral, individual, family, and group therapy. Psychopharmacologic therapy, self-help groups, hospitalization and nutritional counseling are also helpful. Immediate treatment is the best way, but many don’t seek treatment until their thirties or forties. Fifty percent of patients fully recover; however, thirty percent have a relapse up to six years later. (Bulimia pg ). With treatment, bulimia can be successfully overcome.


Nutritional counseling is one way of treating bulimia nervosa. With nutritional counseling, normalizing the eating habits is the goal. A registered counselor works out a meal plan and gives nutritional information. Self-help groups are very similar to support groups. They provide support and encouragement to maintain therapeutic change (Sherman 8). These methods are not used as much as other methods.


Psychopharmacologic therapy uses drugs with different therapies. If drugs are used by themselves, it only eliminates fifteen percent of bingeing habits. Most of the drugs are anti-depressants because most bulimics binge and purge on account of being depressed. Prozac is approved to treat bulimia. It has been found to have a sixty-seven percent reduction in binge eating and a fifty-six percent reduction in vomiting. Prozac is administered for bulimics who have the problem for more than six months and who purge more than three times a week. The other two drugs used are Imipramine and Despiramine. People who are schizophrenic or paranoid may get worse with these drugs. Despiramine is an addictive drug and patients may suffer withdrawal symptoms after they are done using this drug (Bulimia pg ).


Individual therapy treats the patient to their specific needs and therapists use a specialized approach. The therapist works in effort to determine how the eating difficulties develop. They also figure out how to effectively change and begin the change process. The therapist may also use nutritional counseling (Sherman 84). Only thirty percent of patients that go through individual therapy fully recover without any other type of therapy (Bulimia pg 4).


Custom Essays on Treatments of Bulimia nervosa




Family therapy is used often to modify maladaptive family interactions through cooperation of the family. This type of therapy involves the family members that play a role in the bulimic person’s difficulties. The focus of family therapy is less on the individual and more on the family as a unit. The therapist tries to figure out the families’ role in the individual and direct change. When successful, the need to binge and purge should diminish (Sherman 86).


One of the most effective therapies is group therapy. There are five causes that are beneficial from group therapy. First, it allows the bulimic individual to know that he or she is not alone. Second, there is a group of therapists to understand how they feel. Third, it is a safe environment to learn new skills to give up the eating habits. Finally, it provides each member with the opportunity to make significant attachments within the group and therapeutic separations at the end of the treatment (Sherman 86).


Cognitive behavioral therapy is very useful in helping in helping individuals with bulimia overcome long-standing abnormal eating behaviors. Fifty percent of its patients fully recover. Of the fifty percent that do not recover, some may show partial improvement through another type of therapy (Bulimia pg 4). This therapy has been proven to significantly decrease the frequency of binge eating and purging in the majority of its patients. Cognitive behavioral therapy combines many other therapies into one treatment process. It focuses on restructuring conditions related to eating behavior, body shape and weight. The goal is to interrupt the binge eating while reconstructing attitudes, beliefs, and values that have maintained this eating disorder. The therapist helps identify irrational thoughts the clients have that contribute to their disorder. They also want to restore control over dietary intake and improve cognitive methods for controlling feeling. The therapy includes self-monitoring of the frequency, amount, situations, thoughts and emotion associated with bingeing, daily intake journals and prevention by discussing the risks of vomiting, laxative abuse, and health damage (Bulimia pg 5). An estimated 1 in 100 American women binges and purges, so therapists can use assertiveness, communication and problem solving strategies, as well as relaxation and positive body imagery training as needed.


In extreme cases, hospitalization is a type of treatment. General estimates suggest that as many as ten to fifteen percent of eating disorders are fatal for those affected. This is usually only necessary if the bulimia has gotten out of control and the person performs self-induced vomiting several times a day, is vomiting blood, is suicidal because of their eating disorder, or is suffering from dehydration or an electrolyte imbalance. Under hospitalization, therapy is intensive and practical, and is aimed at developing increased control over normal eating, weight and body image. This therapy also addresses psychological issues that could lead to relapse. At the hospital, the services offered are daily treatment planning, interpersonal psychotherapy groups, meal planning and preparation groups, nutrition groups, body image and self esteem groups, communication groups and exercise, stress and relaxation training. Meals are monitored by a nursing staff to help patients break habits related to eating disorder, including binge eating and vomiting or food refusal. Often, patients attend hospitals to have special dental care on their damaged teeth caused by purging and to minimize dental problems in the future (Hopkins 1). Hospitalization should be a bulimics last resort.


In conclusion, bulimics have many types of therapies to choose from. Although some are better than others, every bulimics is different. Any therapy can work; it just depends on the person. Although only fifty percent fully recover, hopefully in the next few years that percentage will rise.














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