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n This section of the book starts off by Harlen’s brother Joe Bigbear coming to town and everyone gathering at The American for drinks and cigars. They talk about pig catching and stories from when Joe and Harlen were little.


n One of the most respected Natives in the community came into Will’s shop to get his picture taking


n Lionel is believed by different people to have good and bad personality traits


n Will is trying to get Harlen to go out with Bertha


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n Will and his friends constantly played tricks on the mentally challenged girl Maydean.


n Will and his friends put James in the dryer


n They get caught by Will’s mother who comes into the basement and see’s them


n Will gets more and more involved with photography


and its good that your not here and im going to merk the fact that your punk. Ass is gone and no longer come into my ho ass life you


n This section of the book starts off by Harlen’s brother Joe Bigbear coming to town and everyone gathering at The American for drinks and cigars. They talk about pig catching and stories from when Joe and Harlen were little.


n One of the most respected Natives in the community came into Will’s shop to get his picture taking


n Lionel is believed by different people to have good and bad personality traits


its is because maydean hates the person their with is the reason that she murdered her friend tomal chest head and killed. The cool person is not you because if you dont have one you shouldnt be here. This essay is good even if you dont think so





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Customer Driven Quality Paper


Customer satisfaction with an organization products and/or services is usually the key to the organizations success and the competitiveness in the market. Satisfaction has been treated as the necessary premise for the retention of customers, and therefore has moved to the forefront of relational marketing approaches. (Rust & Zahorik, 1) In this paper we will be discussing the value of quality in relationship to customer satisfaction within the following industries and businesses


· Manufacturing � Kraft Foods


· Service � Save Mart Supermarkets


Custom Essays on Customer Driven Quality




· Not For Profit - Fresno-Madera Area Agency on Aging


· Government � Madera County


MANUFACTURING


KRAFT FOODS


Kraft Foods Products are among the best-known brands in the world. Kraft’s goods are known internationally for their value and quality. High levels of consistency and innovation add to their products value.


Kraft’s Mission is “To be the Leading Food Company in the World.” In order to achieve this, all aspects of our business must meet high standards that the customers and consumers have grown to expect. Suppliers are essential to meeting this goal. The relationship between Kraft and it’s suppliers is not only important but fundamental in providing our customers with the consistently in high quality products. Without outstanding suppliers, Kraft would not be able to achieve superiority versus their competitor. Thus excellent supplier relationships significantly contribute to Kraft’s success.


To achieve superiority Kraft looks for progressive, value-added suppliers to fulfill their business needs. Each Kraft supplier is considered to be a leader in its industry peer group. While all suppliers contribute to their success some suppliers perform above and beyond, exhibiting an extraordinary dedication to their relationship with Kraft. These companies deserve special recognition for their contributions. To recognize these extraordinary accomplishments, Kraft has created the Kraft Foods Supplier Excellence Award. This annual award will recognize a selected number of companies for superior performance and significant contributions to Kraft.


Kraft has a worldwide quality vision. It is to achieve undisputed leadership; the Kraft Foods Quality Vision is “To provide consumers with products, packages, services and experiences that are designed to provide superior customer satisfaction.” Kraft does this through proactive industry leadership that leads to product superiority product consistency, product safety and product value.


The quality organization will empower Kraft with the guidance and tools to prosper and to achieve competitive advantage in our dynamic global markets via worldwide organization that is recognized as the best in the quality profession. Betsy Holden the CEO says, “the foundation of quality starts with the safety of our products and the security of our process.” Kraft feels that this is what has built the trust of consumers over generations. The consumers and what they value define quality. Before Kraft makes any changes to their products, they conduct extensive, repeated testing with consumers to ensure that the change makes the product at least as good if not better than it was before. Kraft believes quality and the customer goes hand to hand, they need each other. Kraft is about quality and the consumer and this is why Kraft products is known as among the best known brands around the world


SERVICE


SAVEMART


Within the service industry, there is only one factor that is important and that is the customer. The only reason that the service industry is in business is to service the customer. There are many ways the service industry has been successful in dealing with the consumer when developing relationships between each other. Some of the ways are as follows


Customer Recognition This is where the consumer is recognized for their contributions to the organization. Whether it is a mere thank you for using their services to a sign posting their name, this all lends to the ability for that company to develop a strong and devoted customer base.


Consumer Contests This has always been a success in dealing in the service world. The way to the consumer is through their pockets, and if there is something offered to the consumer for nothing, there sure is to be excitement.


Discount Pricing This is again a wonderful way to the hearts of the consumer when offering a service. If a service can be offered at a discounted price, the service is sure to be well received.


Flexibility In this day and age, the term flexibility goes a long way. When a company has the ability to accommodate a customer to fit their needs, no matter what, there tends to develop a long relationship between the two. This may be even more important than price in some situations.


Reliability This is something that is very important no matter what the price is. Regardless of how much it costs, if a company will not be around to back up their work or product, that company is considered worthless. Reliability can be measured in number of years a company has been around to the number of references they may have. But nonetheless, reliability is very important to the consumer when dealing with their hard earned dollar.


Money Back Guarantee If there were ever a phrase that paid, this would be it. In the service industry, this is something that holds a lot of weight with the consumers and is looked at as a liability to the actual company providing the service. If they feel that they have an inferior product or service, there would be no way that they would offer such a deal. However, if the company has total confidence in the product, service and personnel performing the service to provide a MONEY BACK GUARANTEE, then they just may have something that the public is looking for and willing to buy.


Discounts offered for Referrals If there was ever a company that would stake their reputation on the efforts of their past performances, they must feel that they are doing it right. No matter what it is that they do, if a discount is offered to the consumer to develop a larger customer base, there must be some kind of confidence within them. This is a way of developing a larger customer pool by providing solid service to one customer hoping that it is passed on to another and another.


Friendliness This is one of the most important service that any industry can offer to its customers. This is one way that they customer knows that they care about them. It is also a good way for the company to acquire new customers based on the good feeling that the customer received while doing business with them. There is no room in any industry to make the consumer feel that they are not wanted nor not needed.


As it is clear to see, there are many ways that the Service Industry is able to satisfy their customers. Each method is a way of taking care of the current customer and attempting to develop a larger customer base. Each of these methods have one common denominator, and that is that that company must provide a service that is solid and sound. The company must be confident that the service provided will help stimulate more customers. And that the service provided is worth the money spent by the consumer.


NOT FOR PROFIT


Fresno-Madera Area Agency on Aging


The Fresno-Madera Area Agency on Aging (FMAAA) receives a grant from the California Department of Aging to provide services to the elderly. The FMAAA is a unique government agency having the flexibility and operating agility of a non-profit organization. Since its inception, the FMAAA has attempted to identify and address, to the extent possible, the needs of the elderly in Planning and Service Area (PSA) 14. The FMAAA is responsible for identifying service needs, coordinating a service continuum, and assuring the quality and cost efficiency of the service network.


The FMAAA’s planning process to meet the needs of seniors involves understanding client characteristic needs, as well as conducting surveys to assist them in recognizing the needs of seniors in their PSA. In order to respond to the needs of the elderly, the FMAAA conducted a study of demographics and population trends, as well as the aging population, within their Public Service Area in 000/001.


The FMAAA began the planning process, which involved three different needs assessment activities. These assessments served as an important basis for identifying priority program areas, goals and objectives, and providing direction in determine FMAAA’s focus for future goals and objectives.


FMAAA also contracted the “Coming of Age Telephone Surveys” of the 55+ age population in Fresno and Madera Counties. The survey identified unmet needs of seniors and assisted the agency in visualizing the needs of seniors living in rural versus urban areas.


The second assessment activity was the FMAAA Needs Survey, wherein FMAAA conducted an individual needs survey in their PSA in 001. The surveys were distributed to seniors visiting senior centers and other service offices throughout the PSA.


Through FMAAA’s Advisory Council, in 001, FMAAA conducted their third assessment activity, which was a Rural Congregate Nutrition Needs survey. The survey focused specifically to measure client satisfaction and identify unmet needs. Senior center site managers served as mediators in distributing the surveys to seniors.


To ensure quality services are being provided by the services that the FMAAA contracts out, the FMAAA requires providers to conduct and submit to the agency an annual survey to measure client satisfaction. Seniors are provided with a self-addressed stamped envelope to ensure all responses are delivered to the agency. The FMAAA also conducts yearly monitoring for all the programs it contracts out. The monitoring evaluates both program performance and fiscal processes. In some cases, the program monitor will interview a client to include a supportive documentation of the program’s effectiveness.


The survey results provide information about levels and patterns of service utilization and informal care giving. Through surveys the agency learns more about the health status and social well being of seniors, which assists them with a resource to plan their goals and objectives.


Since the needs assessment of 000 and 001, surveys have been conducted and updated every year to measure client satisfaction and identify unmet needs. The survey results are published and submitted to the California Department of Aging on a yearly basis.


Government


Madera County


In government, quality takes on a different role when we talk about customer satisfaction. Government is a service-oriented organization and does not have any tangible products; they are in the form of packaged information. Some of the products we could fined are; A plan, a course, a design, a procedure, a policy, a speech, a report, a proposal, a diagram, a contract, a schedule, a program, an answer and a few others (Lawton).


Madera County’s Board of Supervisors provides the ordinances, rules and policy, supervises the departments, adopts an annual budget and fixes salaries within the laws of the state. The mission is to Serve the public interest in a fiscally responsible manner by providing efficient, cost effective customer service, promoting public health and safety while creating new possibilities with partnerships through a diversified economy. (County Web Site).


The Clerks office of the board of supervisors has the function of keeping track of the boards activities and keeping official records. Assistance is provided through other county departments, agencies, service areas public financing, redevelopment and various committees’ within the county. (County Web Site).


Some services


· Equalization the value of property for tax purposes to raise revenue is a policy in the county, one that is not liked but useful in acquiring funds for operation; most of the time this is not satisfying to customers, unless they need to use or are receiving other services.


· A water conservation plan to control flood waters, storm, drainage and other water resources for the public good is for the protection of life and property.


· Maintenance service areas are formed for the purpose of providing funded projects for improvement of roads, lighting, sewer, water, fire and recreation areas used by the public.


· Redevelopment plans for each project area are submitted and hearings are held for public approval, disapproval and feedback before decisions are made on public financing.


· Public organizations provide services for general interest and are expected to be fair in providing public goods for a broad society.


Government provides challenges in implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) because of problems in “securing sustained commitment in the context of political turnover at executive levels, problems of identifying customers, problems in measuring out-puts and products, personnel systems that limit empowerment and the use of teams” (Rainey, 17, p. 6). Failed TQM efforts often display qualities of “insufficient leadership, weak culture, weak management of the change process, and poor provisions for motivation and teamwork” (Rainey, 17, p 6). Application of Total Quality Management is a long-range process, with challenges and opportunities. Critics of TQM call it a management “fad,” an issue that challenges governments all the time.


MATRIX


MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY SERVICE INDUSTRY NOT FOR PROFIT INDUSTRY GOVERNMENT INDUSTRY


RECOGNITION ü ü ü


SAFETY POLICY ü ü ü ü


HEALTH POLICY ü ü ü ü


SECURITY ü ü ü ü


CONSUMER CONTEST ü


FLEXIBILITY ü ü


UPGRADE ü ü ü ü


TESTING ü


SURVEYS ü ü ü


RELIABILITY ü ü ü


FRIENDLINESS ü ü ü ü


COST EFFICIENCY ü ü ü


ANNUAL BUDGETS ü


GUARENTEES ü ü


As you can see customer satisfaction is very important in any organization. It is very critical for today’s organization to focus on the customer because of the competitive market. If customers are not satisfied with the product or service they will be more likely not to return to the company and not purchase the product again. These customers are also more likely to not recommend the organization to others. As a group we feel that it is extremely important for everyone in the organization to work synergistically towards the goal of customer satisfaction. We feel that this is the most important component to a long-term success for any organization.





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Human beings are known to be the cleverest group of mammals on the earth. We are gregarious by nature and like to live in groups. We further tend to form subdivisions in these groups, for example families, communities, work groups, scientists, and business groups. We all feel the need to belong to a group. Whenever people have the same thought or belief, they will join together and form a group. People have different beliefs, and this is the reason why there are many different groups. In each of the different groups, there is always a thing that forces people not to change their own beliefs and not to get along with others. It is called antagonistic psychology. It fights against authority. Nevertheless, throughout our youth, we obey people in any position of authority, such as parents, teachers, doctors, and other ¡®grown-ups¡¯. Such obedience leads to the order of the human society. In fact, obedience to authority is necessary and exists everywhere in the human society, for example, in laboratories, in schools, at hospitals and between police officers and the public.


A famous experiment on the psychological study-obedience to authority-was conducted by Stanley Milgram in 16. It proved that obedience is the nature of human beings and the necessity of it for the human society to function well is very fundamental. It is just like to the human being¡¯s need of feeding. In the after-researched report ¡°The Perils of Obedience¡±, ¡°Obedience is as basic an element in the structure of social life as one can point to,¡± stated Milgram(Page 17). Although this is one of the highly unethical experiments, the study did show some surprising results. Milgram¡¯s brief experiment design was that subjects, who were from a variety of backgrounds, were recruited to attend a study of memory and learning. Half of them were the teachers, the others the learners. Each teacher was told to shock a learner if he or she missed a question. The inside goal of the study was to statistically prove if people would shock an absolute stranger with a maximum of 450 volts just because they had been told to or suggested to. Of course, the shocks were not real and the learners were ordered to pretend they were being shocked. Psychiatrists predicted that only those totally amoral teachers would proceed to the end of experiment. Very surprisingly, the result turned out that psychiatrists¡¯ prediction was not accurate two thirds of the teachers administered the shock up to the end of the experiment. The majority followed the instructions from Milgram, even if they unsuspiciously thought the shocks were deadly hurt.


In education, school generally has authority over its students. Teachers in kindergartens, who always play the role of a leader or controller maintaining the order of a class, are considered as authority. Teachers have to look after kindergartners on the site after parents passed the custody of their children to the schools. Any naughty behavior in any regular class will lead to a punishment from the teachers. Kindergartners will obey what teachers say at any time if they do not want to receive any punishment. College students also do what kindergartners do and obey schools¡¯ policy, for instance, in every college, parking lots for students with a semester parking permit are designated far away from the main campus while some parking lots which are close to the main campus are only for those who buy a daily parking permit. All students have to obey the parking policy, and park their cars at the designated location. Otherwise, the violator will be issued a ticket, and there is no exception because when the students buy a parking permit, they have already agreed on the parking policy, and they have to the policy.


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Obedience to authority does not only exist in education system, but also at hospitals. People hardly suspect the doctors¡¯ diagnosis and prescription. Nurses do not refuse to comply with the prescriptions from doctors, even if they may feel the prescriptions are unsafe. Obviously, the obedience to authority is quite absolute at hospitals; none would like to violate or break the rule. Patients cannot diagnosis their illness without any theoretically medical education background, and although nurses have been somewhat educated, they would rather obey than refuse. The reason is that ¡°a person comes to himself/herself as the instrument for carrying out another person¡¯s wishes, and he/she therefore no longer regards himself/herself as responsible for his/her actions.¡±(Milgram; Page 6). Hence, nurses consider that they are not responsible for their actions because they are just carrying out doctors¡¯ instructions. Then, the nurses just follow and obey instructions, and the patients do the same. The act of obedience will not do any harm to those who obey. In life and death situation, people have to obey doctors, even if they do not want to or even if they do not agree with the doctors. Therefore, they think it is no good not to conform.


Other than schools and hospitals, obedience to authority apparently exists in the transactions between police officers and the members of public. The interesting phenomenon, which every driver very often comes across, is that the freeway traffic will be in very good order and every driver is very polite, when a police officer is present. Nobody dares to speed in the presence of a police officer because nobody wants to get a ticket. People who buy radar detectors may want to disobey the traffic law. Actually, the real intention of buying a radar detector is to help the disobedient to obey. Imagine that when one drives over the speed limit on a freeway, and all in a sudden, a radar detector on your car starts to beep. Is releasing the gas pedal the first reaction? It must be the case. When the beeping starts, it is natural for you to reduce your speed if you do not want a ticket. In this situation, the police officers are regarded as an authority.


Like Brooks said, ¡°There is a fundamental order to the universe, and it works. If you play by its rules and defer to its requirements, you will lead a pretty fantastic life,¡± (Brooks; Page 74) every class of society has some sort of hierarchy in which some individuals hold authority over the others. Teachers have authority over their students; doctors have authority over nurses; police officers have authority over the members of public. Everyone obeys and follows the rules with no doubt. For a stable community to maintain stability, people have to obey to authority. None of human beings could conceive of a society with a good order in the absence of a rule to obey to authority.





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The second offering from Brigit Saint Brigit’s Irish Theatre in Repertory, the play is set in early 17 during a civil rights march in Derry City, Northern Ireland. As the scene opens, three dead bodies are photographed and given their last rites before being dragged offstage. An English judge then appears and provides some background These three people came together, seized possession of a civic building and openly defied the security forces. The facts may indicate that the deceased were callous terrorists who had planned to seize the Guildhall weeks before or the misguided scheme occurred to them on that very day while they listened to revolutionary speeches.


As the play continues, it becomes apparent that neither of these scenarios apply. Suffering from gas inhalation and burned eyes, Michael Hegarty (Daniel Dorner), an idealistic student; Lily Doherty (Charleen Willoughby), a 4-year-old housecleaner and mother of 11; and Skinner (Scott Kurz), a cynical vagabond who lives by his wits, unknowingly wander inside the Guildhall for some clean air; the side door has been left unlocked and unguarded during the commotion. While they recover, the trio sups fine spirits, dresses in government robes and marvels at the opulence around them. But they aren’t terrorists. As Hegarty says, all they want is what everyone should be entitled to a decent home, a place of employment that offers a fair wage and a free city in which to raise their children. Unfortunately, the odds are against them and the only thing they are destined for is more misery.


Directed by Cathy M.W. Kurz, Freedom of the City is one of the finest productions to grace an Omaha stage in years. It is thought-provoking and socially relevant material that can leave its audience speechless. It also asks questions that few do, including what role do economics play in such an event and when a tragedy occurs do we ever really learn the truth. In Freedom of the City , the tension and fear is so high during the demonstration that the police officers and media inflate the gravity of the situation, saying that as many as 40 people may be involved and that because the Guildhall is a symbol to the Unionists the outcome will probably be like the fall of the Bastille. When preconceptions such as these exist, the only possible outcome is knee-jerk reaction, serious regret and lives lost.




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together we walked down the streets holding hands and i wished that i could be with that sweet man. he was holding the hand of another woman. unfortunately that woman was my mother.


so sad a time was had when i discovered that man with my mother. i loved him for years. we did everything imaginable. we went to the park, we had picnics, we even went to the zoo! where did i go wrong? he held my hand all the time, but why did he never kiss me like he kisses mother? i am prettier than mother, even though everyone says that i inherited her good looks. if only i could steal him away from her and make him only mine.


but tht is near impossible. there was a theory once by freud, i think i am entirely examining the symptoms of his theory. for the man i love that is with my mother, is my father.


if only i could see! yet i could not, would not allow him to be taken from me from right under my nose! that would be a disgrace, a terrible terrible disgrace. to make love to this man would be all that i wished for, nothing more, nothing less.


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i overheard my parents speaking and i knew wht they were about to do. i heard the tell tale kissing and decided that i had to stay. (i was in their closet so there was nowhere i could go anyway). i overheard their love making and studied everything that was good about it, right down to the hand that slowly caressed his back.





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Are you afriad of the dark? Do weird noises in the night frighten you? Does a late night thunderstorm cause you to panic? At night, when it is storming, my room is confusing and scary.


The sights I see are of the most disturbing. A plush Big Bird follows all movements I make with its eyes. With a non-stop glare, it pierces me. A mound of dirty clothes accompanies this Big Bird. The pile of clothes appears to be a ghostly man. Its glare pierces sharper than the Big Birds. It feels much darker and evil. It seems that the pile of clothes could right over to me and squeeze the last breath out of my frightened body, leaving me lip without a pulse. Along with the sites of Big Bird and the pile of clothes is a ceiling fan. Instead of a normal cooling fan, this fan spins wildely in attempts to get closer to my bed to fulfill its purpose of chopping me into bits. Starting from forty-eight inches and descending to thirty-six and thirty-six to twenty-four and so on, until the distance between my nose and the fan dwindles to millimeters.


The noises in my room intensify my fright. They send my mind through a route of confusion and madness. The noises frighten me and remind me that I am alone to fend for mystlf. Without the voices of familiear people, my fear seems to only worsen. The spinning of the wild cealing fan generates a whopping noices that only reminds me of the dath that may occur shortly. Swoop, swoop, swoop, it goes as it approaches my bed even closer. The crickets I hear confirm my solitude with the murderous objects in the dark. I feel like I am doomed to a terrible death. The eerie sounds from outside confuse me. It is pitch dark and raining, but I hear the bouncing of a basketball and the hammering of a nail. The normal daytime noises seem to have mistaken their time of intended occurrence. I wonder if this is the sign of someone coming to help or is it nothing more than a silly mockery of my confusion and firhgt. This confusion only fuels my fear.


I feel the short quick bursts of wind that blow through my window catching me off guard. It seems as if a storm my be brewing.


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In the movie Bowling for Columbine by Michael Moore, talks about the violence that faces the United States of America and other countries. The movie illustrates gun violence, and the number of people killed by guns. Bowling for Columbine, also talks about different countries views on poverty, violent history and the break up of the family unit.


In America, television news programs try to instill fear into the hearts of the people. The news focuses on violence and death, when asked a news reporter said he would go to a gun shooting before he went to a child near drowning. Where in Canada television, the news focuses on what is going around the town. They are not talking about what can kill you or get you sick, those reporters are not trying to scare the Canadian people.


People of the United States of American blame the violence the country faces on our countries violent past; example the whole cowboys and Indians. The only problem is that other countries that have less violence in everyday life have had more violence in their past. The Germans exterminated 1 million; the Japanese occupation of China, the French massacre in Algiers, and the British slaughter in India.


As for the gun violence in the world there are three hundred and eighty one deaths by guns in Germany, two hundred and fifty five in France, one hundred and sixty five in Canada, sixty eight in the United Kingdom, thirty nine in Japan, and eleven thousand one hundred and twenty seven deaths causes by guns in the United States of America. People said that the gun violence was greater in the United States because Americans owned more guns then any other country. In Canada there are seven million guns owners to ten million people but only one hundred and sixty five deaths a year.


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People of the United States of America also blame the poverty levels and the break up of the family unit (divorce) for the everyday violence in the States. The poverty level in Canada is twice as high as the poverty level in the United States. The divorce rate is also higher in Great Britain then it is in the United States. Canada and Great Britain combined still have less gun deaths a year then the United States but the States still blame their gun violence on divorce and poverty.


The only thing that these countries really are different about is their government and military spending. The Canadian government does not spend nearly as much money on their military and Canada uses that extra money to give all Canada residence free health insurance. The Canadian government does not try to instill fear into the people. Most Canadian residence leave their houses unlocked. Even after their houses have been broken into, the people say we are locking ourselves in not someone out. The United States government spends billions and billions of money and invests it into the military. The American people are locked inside of their homes in fear of the world. Everyplace the American people turned they are faced with this will kill you and that will kill you. There is no place to hide and you cannot escape, that is the message that they are receiving from the American government.


By the American government keeping the residence of the United States in fear, the government is in control and not the people. After September 11, 00, Wal-Mart sales in guns increased seventy percent; ammunition increased one hundred and forty percent, and ADT security sales increased thirty percent. Lots of money and careers were built off of making the American people scared. During the day that the Columbine shooting took place more bombs where dropped on Coastivlle then any other time during that war. No questions for asked about that and why the government did that because the whole country was reacting to Columbine and not paying attention to the war.


So what is really at fault for the large amount of gun violence in America, it is not the violent history nor the poverty level or the break up of the family unit, it is not the amount of people who own guns, it must be the government and the way they run their country. The way the government wants to keep everyone in fear of the world and their neighbor. The government controls the gun violence in American by controlling what the residence know and need to know.





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Bruce Dawe is an Australian poet who often writes about the social evils of today. He expresses strong emotions and morals, through his poetry, on current issues of the society, hence often leaving the reader with many unanswered questions and therefore persuading them to reconsider their values. With the aid of poetic techniques, this is particularly evident in poems such as The Not-so-good Earth, Homecoming and The Wholly Innocent.


The Not-so-good Earth, written in 166 is a dramatic monologue in free verse and concerns the western world’s ignorance, disinterestedness and prejudices against Asian countries. Through the title of this poem, hyphenation and the use of the persona, the reader is, in turn left with several thoughts associated with this social issue.


The title itself already suggests the poem’s dominating interest as it is unambiguous that Dawe is playing with the title of the book The Good Earth, written by Pearl Buck - a novel dealing with a poor Chinese family and their struggles with life, only to become successful in the end through hard work. However, real life situations are extremely different from those experienced in The Good Earth and Dawe acknowledges the reality of life in countries like China. The title of this poem induces the reader to distinguish between the dreams and the reality of the world. It informs the reader in thinking beyond their world and to think critically of themselves and their attitudes towards the unfortunate regions of the world.


Throughout this poem, the struggle with life in China is continuing, though the only thing Uncle Billy is concerned about is making the television screen clearer by “using the contrast knob”. Even while he is adjusting the image on the television, “all those screaming faces / and bodies” are “going under the horses’ hooves”. This statement is hyphenated in attempt to make it conspicuous, however, having a clearer vision on the television is more important than the suffering peasants of China, to this family. People in China are “just” “starving away” and 600 million Chinese people have died, though we just view this as entertainment. From this, the reader is positioned to acknowledge the fact that it is disgusting and disappointing that people from the western society can simply perceive this as pure entertainment.


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The Not-so-good Earth takes the form of a dramatic monologue with the persona of this poem being just a young child. As a consequence of this technique, the reader visualises the family watching the television and from the persona’s description, it is apparent that the family feels no sympathy for the people on the television screen. From the persona’s ordinary speech, it is obvious that this young child has no idea of what is occurring and is more interested in her/his family’s actions � such as Uncle Billy’s “fast going eyesight” and her/his father tripping over the main lead and wiping out the television, than what is being presented on the television. Though the reader forgives this notion due to the persona’s immaturity and innocence. The use of the persona being a young child provides the reader with a factual account of a typical family’s reaction towards serious world issues. It portrays the fact that people in the western world just simply do not care about suffering nations, and that no one really does pay attention to issues like such, unless it is happening to them or to people of closer relations. However, this is an extremely superficial thought, as we should feel sympathy towards anyone who has to suffer unnecessarily. After all, we are all human and no one is more superior than another person.


Consequently, it can be seen that The Not-so-good Earth foregrounds the moral issues of the western society, and it is satirical as it portrays the fact that people from the western world possess little sympathy for the suffering people in many Asian countries. It establishes the point that people just do not care about others’ suffering, unless the suffering is happening to them or to people of closer relations. In turn, this leaves the reader with a self critical point of view, as this is the reality of life in many places, though if we cannot relate to it, we simply view it as entertainment.


Homecoming is an anti-war poem, which is written in 168 in conjunction with the Vietnam War. This poem is an elegy written in free verse and it is deliberately given the misleading title of Homecoming. This is ironic as coming home is usually portrayed positively, though the tone of this poem reflects a feeling of gentle melancholy, and this is predominantly due to the fact that the people arriving back home are all dead. From this, the reader is immediately positioned to view war from a depressing perspective.


Homecoming opens with a monotonous rhythm; however, this tone is broken when “those they can find” is read. There is an emphasis placed on this particular line and this attracts the readers’ attention as the reader acknowledges the fact that “them” and “they” are references to the soldiers. By stating, “those they can find”, the reader also realizes that many soldiers are often lost at war and cannot be found. In turn, the reader becomes conscious of the atrocious effects caused from war.


The formlessness of this poem, that is, in free verse and lacking punctuation, and repetition of “they’re”, accentuates the incessantness of war. The repetition also portrays these men as objects or processed meat � nameless, depersonalised and with no trace of identity. From this, the reader feels poignant and emotional, as the men who are serving our nation, are not even acknowledged by their name. The reader feels sympathetic towards the soldiers who have lost their lives through war, and we are positioned to perceive war as being nothing but a way of slaughtering the entire human race.


The simile “telegrams tremble like leaves from a wintering tree” provides the reader with a vivid image of all the families who are receiving the horrific news that their loved ones have died as a consequence of war. This line portrays the fact that millions of people are simply killed from war and to the extent that the telegrams are trembling considerably. From this, the reader is positioned to comprehend that nothing positive arises from war.


As a result, this poem powerfully conveys the negativities and revulsion of war, something that despondently still exists today. It foregrounds death and establishes the fact that millions of bodies are lost and killed as a result of war. Furthermore, the names of these dead soldiers are not even acknowledged and they are only recognized from their hairstyles � “curly-heads, kinky-hairs, crew-cuts, balding non-coms”. Dawe has used various techniques in positioning and manipulating the reader in believing that war is immoral and unnecessary in today’s society.


The Wholly Innocent, written in the 180’s is a ballad of dramatic monologue form, and concerns the issue of abortion. The persona of this poem is an unborn child who is speaking to her/his mother about her/his views on abortion and its consequences. This poem is completely humourless and the tone present is exceptionally serious as it is regarding an extremely controversial issue.


The title of this poem accurately reflects the subject matter, as the poem involves an aborted foetus who has done no wrong in this world, and is therefore “wholly innocent”. In turn, this positions the reader in believing that the unborn foetus, who has done no injustice to the world, should at least be given the chance to live. As in the line “Defenceless as a lamb.”, the foetus’s innocence is again reinstated as lambs symbolise purity. Therefore, the foetus’s innocence induces the reader to sympathise with her/him and thus, the reader is positioned to perceive that abortion is immoral.


The repetition of “I never” and “Nor” in the first two stanzas portrays the fact that the unborn foetus has missed out on numerous aspects of life due to her/his mother’s choice of killing her/him. The use of repetition expresses the endless list of things that the foetus has lost as a result of never having encountered life and all its wonders. In turn, this manipulates the reader in believing that abortion is unethical as by killing someone, you are not providing her/him with the opportunity to experience life.


The lines


“Oh you within whose god-like power


It lies to so decide”


is extremely powerful in this poem as it establishes the fact that the mother of this foetus has no right to take away her/his life. There is absolutely no justice in killing a life and these lines state the fact that the mother has no entitlement in doing so, as she possesses little power in comparison to that of god’s.


The last stanza in this poem is particularly effective in leaving the reader with a sense of guilt as it reveals the fact that the foetus is only human and would have also loved and enjoyed the things that other people take pleasure in. The line “I never got that far.” summarises the whole poem and leaves all the women who have ever undergone an abortion feeling guilty, as it reinstates the act of depravity that has been committed. In turn, the theme of having the right to life is again expressed.


As a result, it can be seen that The Wholly Innocent is specifically effective in conveying the immorality of abortion. Through a variety of poetic techniques, Dawe successfully foregrounds the theme of having the right to life and the reader acknowledges the fact that everyone should at least be given an opportunity to encounter it. Therefore, this poem establishes that abortion is profligate and unjust as by aborting a child, you are ultimately killing a form of life and are not even giving her/him the chance to experience it � a virtue that everyone deserves.


Consequently, it can be seen that Bruce Dawe does feel strongly drawn to comment on the social evils of today. This is evident in poems like The Not-so-good Earth, where Dawe criticizes the ignorance of people who demonstrate no interest in suffering nations, Homecoming, an anti-war poem portraying the loss of lives and negativities of war and The Wholly Innocent, which concerns the issue of abortion and therefore, the theme of having the right to life. Bruce Dawe once said that, “we write out of a need to come to terms with some concern, something “bugging” us.”, and from this statement, it is blatant that he expresses his emotions and morals through his poetry in attempt to share his views and concerns on contemporary issues of the world, and in influencing readers to reconsider their values.


Sok Lian Teow, 00


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1. Case Name, Citation, and Court


Carnival Cruise Lines Inc. v. Shute


4 U.S. 585, 111 S.Ct. 15, 11 L.Ed.d 6 (11)


United States Supreme Court


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. Summary of the Key Facts


· The Shutes purchased, in Washington from a travel agent, passage for a seven-day cruise on the Tropicale, a cruise ship operated by the Carnival Cruise Lines Inc.


· Each ticket contained a forum-selection clause that designated the state of Florida as the forum for any lawsuits within the contract terms.


· Mrs. Shute slipped and fell from a deck mat during a guided tour of the ship’s galley and was injured.


· Upon return to Washington, she sued for negligence against Carnival Cruise Lines Inc. in the U.S. district court of Washington seeking damages.


· Carnival filed motion that the suit could be brought only in a court in the state of Florida and the appeals court reversed it stating that Mrs. Shute could sue carnival in Washington. Carnival appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court.


. The Issue


Does one need to prove negligence and suffering in another state to be awarded damages due to a forum selection clause?


4. The Holding


Yes. The Supreme Court reversed the decision of the court of appeals


5. Summary of the Courts Reasoning


On basis of forum-selection clause in a form ticket contract is never enforceable simply because it is not the subject of bargaining. The U.S. Supreme Court based their opinion on the facts that a cruise line carries many passengers from various locals and it is very likely that a mishap may occur. In light of this, the cruise line may suffer litigation in many different forums. As well to the discounted rates, they already offer to passengers of various locals to enjoy their right to litigate in the forum of their choice.


6. Opinion


I believe that the court’s ruling is appropriate for this situation because if the courts of many other states filed litigation towards the cruise line they would spend a lot of time and money traveling their lawyers from state to state litigating. If the damages were severe enough one would litigate in the provided state court to seek what they deserve.





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Discuss the notion of Marketing Orientation. What, if any, are the links between marketing orientation and organisational performance?


Market orientation is an organisations disposition to provide superior value to its customers continuously (Slater and Narver, citied in Han, Kim and Srivastava 18). Kohli and Jaworski as cited by Avlonitis and Gounaris (1) suggested that the market orientation framework consists of three components, intelligence gathering, intelligence dissemination and responsiveness. They also proposed that this framework is influenced by a number of antecedent variables, such as top management involvement and interdepartmental conflict, is moderated by environmental variables including market turbulence, and is manifested in a number of outcomes, for example, esprit-de-corps and company performance (Ngai and Ellis 18). Noble, Sinha and Kumar (00) states that there is support that by striving to achieve market orientation will have a positive effect on organisational performance.


Intelligence gathering is the first step in the market orientation framework. The major type of information acquired is on customers’ needs and preferences. Although intelligence gathering pertains to these customer needs and preferences, the process also includes an analysis of how these may be affected by factors such as government regulations, technology, competitors and other environmental factors (Deshpande 1). This is so organisations can understand how their products cater for and satisfy customer needs and wants better (Avlonitis and Gounaris 1).


Effectively responding to a market need requires the participation of the organisation as a whole from research and development, manufacturing, purchasing right through to the sales and marketing departments. For the organisations to adapt to these needs the intelligence gathered from the previous process needs to be communicated, disseminated and sold to relevant departments and individuals (Deshpande 1). By disseminating the information it will familiarise and mobilise the organisation towards the objectives and goals required to provide customer value and satisfaction (Avlonitis and Gounaris 1).


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Responsiveness takes the form of selecting target markets, designing and offering products and services for catering to their current and anticipated needs, and producing, distributing, and promoting the products in a manner that elicits favourable end-customer response (Deshpande 1). It is also adjusting products towards market needs and wants, rather than according to the organisations beliefs and perceptions (Avlonitis and Gounaris 1).


However, there are antecedent variables that can enhance or impede the implementation of the framework towards market orientation. Avlonitis and Gournaris refer to the Top Management Team (TMT) as an important influencing factor. The reason why the TMT are important is that they are the ones that must ensure that the structure is in place so that the organisation can effectively implement the new strategies to gain market effectiveness. The factors that make them influential is how likely are they to encourage employees to successfully implement these strategies, share market intelligence and be responsive to market needs (Deshpande 1). It could be said that the greater the encouragement and acceptance of the TMT, the greater the market intelligence generation the intelligence dissemination and the overall responsiveness to market change. Another important factor to consider is that responding to market needs often calls for change within the organisation is some form or another. Change of any kind has elements of risk, how big a risk is determined by the nature and size of the change. For that reason the greater the risk aversion of the TMT, the lower the market intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination and the responsiveness of the organisation.


Deshpande (1) refers to departmental dynamics. This refers to the formal and informal interactions and relationships among the organisations departments. An important aspect of departmental dynamics is conflicts, this usually arising from departments having incompatible objectives. The greater the interdepartmental conflict, the lower the market intelligence dissemination and the responsiveness of the organisation. Deshpande (1) also alludes to interdepartmental connectedness. This refers to the degree of direct formal and informal contact among employees across departments. The greater interdepartmental connectedness is, the greater the market intelligence dissemination and the responsiveness of the organisation. On a more structural level Matsuno, Mentzer and Ozsomer (00) talk about the organisations centralisation and formalisation. Centralisation refers to the amount of responsibility and authority delegated throughout an organisation and the extent of participation by organisational members in decision-making. Formalisation is defined as the emphasis placed within the organisation on following specific rules and procedures. The greater the formalisation of an organisation, the less it will tend to generate, disseminate, and plan a response to market information but the more effective its response implementation. The greater the centralisation of an organisation, the less it will tend to generate, disseminate, and plan a response to market information but the more effective its response implementation Deshpande (1).


Han, Kim and Srivastava (18) refer to environmental factors that can effect customer satisfaction. Environmental factors refer to competitive intensity, market turbulence and technological turbulence. These environmental factors help organisations to produce products and services that provide value for customers. Competitive advantage comes from the ability to shape buyer perceptions, preferences, and decision making, in which technology and innovation are critical factors. Technical innovation and knowledge management also contributes to customer satisfaction.


The greater the market orientation, the greater the esprit de corps and organizational commitment of employees. Many executives noted that a market orientation provides a number of psychological and social benefits to employees. In addition, a market orientation leads to a sense of pride in belonging to an organization in which all departments and individuals work toward the common goal of serving customers. These matters result in employees sharing a feeling of worthwhile contribution and stronger feelings of job satisfaction and commitment to the organization


A market orientation is likely to lead to improved performance because it is the organizational culture and climate that most effectively encourages the behaviors necessary for the creation of superior value for buyers and, therefore, continuous superior profit for the business





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Although modern women have somewhat overcome the unfair prejudice and the degradation of the female gender, women in the nineteenth century were forced to deal with a culture in which gender equality was much less understood and existed. The nineteenth century society often placed specific, stereotypical, and restrictive standards on how the female gender should behave. The gazes, which can be described as ¡°the viewing relationship characteristic of a particular set of social circumstances¡±(The Gaze), of various characters at the American woman in literature reflect such gender inequality in the old, conservative society. Especially, in the short story Daisy Miller by Henry James, the gazes of Winterbourne at Daisy during their first meeting, Mrs. Costello at Daisy when having a conversation with Winterbourne, and James at the Miller women and Mrs. Walker are the good examples to present the gender inequality in such conservative society. They are used to create the appropriate behaviors of American women and to demonstrate how the female gender was seen by the other sex as well as the same sex between the young-American and the old-European societies in the nineteenth century.


The gaze of Winterbourne at Daisy during their first meeting clearly illustrates how the female gender was seen by the other sex. As Daisy approaches toward Winterbourne and her brother Randolph, Winterbourne is immediately attracted to the pretty American girl. James writes ¡°She was dressed in white muslin, with a hundred frills and flounces, and knots of pale-colored ribbon. She was bareheaded, but she balanced in her hand a large parasol, with a deep border of embroidery; and she was strikingly, admirably pretty. How pretty they are! thought Winterbourne, straightening himself in his seat, as if he were prepared to rise¡±(4). Winterbourne¡¯s gaze on the physical features of Daisy shows that she is from the wealthy family. Also, his impression, ¡°How pretty they are!¡±, suggests that Winterbourne immediately makes a judgment about Daisy as a typical pretty American girl and he does not individualize her as a unique person. Furthermore, the reaction of his body shows his sexual arousal at the sight of Daisy. This tells that the American woman is seen as a sexual object either consciously or unconsciously. As the conversation of Winterbourne and Daisy continues, Winterbourne considers Daisy as a flirt. James writes ¡°He was inclined to think Miss Daisy Miller was a flirt--a pretty American flirt. He had never, as yet, had any relations with young ladies of this category¡±(10). This indicates that Winterbourne misjudges Daisy¡¯s uncultivated and innocent manner as a flirt and distinguishes her into a category as a pretty American flirt he had never met before. All of these clearly show how a man comes to the conclusion about the American women by only looking at women¡¯s physical features and the body reactions that he receives.


The gaze of Mrs. Costello at Daisy when having a conversation with Winterbourne shows how the female gender was seen by the same sex and how the American woman should behave in the women¡¯s point of view. James writes ¡° They are very common, Mrs. Costello declared. They are the sort of Americans that one does ones duty by not--not accepting ¡±(1). Mrs. Costello¡¯s comment about Daisy and her family confirms the disapproval and the contempt of Daisy¡¯s family since they are common according to her. In other words, Mrs. Costello immediately looks down upon the Daisy¡¯s family because of their new money and unsophisticated conduct. Also, she blames them for not accepting the code of social behavior since Daisy refuses to obey the rules of European society. It is clear to see that Mrs. Costello disapproves a woman, who acts only on her free will and spontaneous impulse. When Winterbourne tells his aunt that he is going to take Daisy to Chateau de Chillon, Mrs. Costello responds, ¡° Dear me! cried Mrs. Costello. What a dreadful girl! ¡±(15). Her response shows the negativity toward Daisy since Winterbourne and Daisy decided to go to the old castle together after knowing each other only for half an hour. In the Mrs. Costello¡¯s point of view, Daisy¡¯s such act is unimaginable since it is against the code of conduct for women to go to places with foreign men. Since Mrs. Costello is incapable to notice beyond these issues, she immediately judges Daisy based on the stereotype she sees her fulfilling as the young American flirt. All of these surely show that Mrs. Costello only accepts the idea that women must follow the customs and traditions of old Europe. Also, they show that a woman judges the same sex based on her way of life and belief.


Last, the gaze of James at the Miller women and Mrs. Walker illustrates how the female was seen by the opposite sex and how the behaviors of women from the American society were different compare to the behaviors of women from the European society. James categorizes the Miller women and Mrs. Walker to show the different lifestyle that they pursued. James writes ¡°This lady and her daughter, however, were not at home; and on the next day after, repeating his visit, Winterbourne again had the misfortune not to find them¡±(4). This portrays the lifestyle that the Miller women pursued. Their preference on the outward action and the loose modes of custom is reflected on the fact that they are often not at home. Also, for Mrs. Walker, James writes ¡°Mrs. Walker was one of those American ladies who, while residing abroad, make a point, in their own phrase, of studying European society, and she had on this occasion collected several specimens of her diversely born fellow mortals to serve, as it were, as text-books¡±(4). This quotation depicts that Mrs. Walker¡¯s lifestyle is to achieve the greater approval of her social circle by staying home most of time and having a party to which she can invite her social peers. Also, it shows that she focuses on the appearance and the formal propriety of women in the European society. It is clear that Mrs. Walker uses her party to observe the European society instead of participating in it. Such contrasting lifestyles surely categorize women between the American and the European society.


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In the nineteenth century, women were required to behave in the rigid rules of formalized civil society. When women denied accepting such strict and conservative standards, they were ridiculed and rejected by their social circle and compatriots. In Daisy Miller by Henry James, the gazes of Winterbourne at Daisy during their first meeting, Mrs. Costello at Daisy when having a conversation with Winterbourne, and James at the Miller women and Mrs. Walker are used to prove the unfairness toward women due to the strict rules of the old society. Also, they are used to show the suitable behaviors that the American women should pursue and to illustrate how women were seen by the other sex as well as the same sex between the American and the European society. Although women of today are still striving for gender equality, James and his characters surely helped to light the way for gender equality to go one step further.





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Opening paragraph


Start by talking about Vitai Lampada


Late 1th century poem that talks about a young mans patriotic duty, and the important lessons that are to be taught at school. Starts with a public school cricket match. Describe this verse. Typical public school scene. Desperate situation, but of course it is not that desperate � it is only a game. The boy encouraged to do the right thing � to do his best no matter how hopeless the situation. Use quotations to help illustrate the points you make.


Next paragraph


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Second verse. This time the situation is desperate. Lots of quotation here, please. Almost melodramatic ‘river of death’ etc. A bad situation, but described in distant terms and as if it is the soldiers fault that the square broke. People are about to give up � morale is low � but then the old school cry comes out. We must do our best for the sake of our country. (it is not really a schoolboy � but even grown soldiers were schoolboys once). Go on now to next verse. This talks about how this sense of patriotic duty and honour is the most important lesson that must be passed down from generation to generation. It must be passed down like a baton in a relay race. Talk about the Latin phrase, Vitai Lampada, and how that means the torch of life and was old Roman saying.


Next paragraph.


Owen also makes use of a Latin phrase, Dulce et Decorum Est, pro patria mori, but uses it in a very different way to Newbolt.


Start talking about Dulce in detail. You should be able to do this quite easily, but use lots of quotations and explain them. Opening ideas � young men reduced to old beggars etc. The real effects of the war.


Then after the gas attack we get Owen inviting the reader in to the action, when he describes the young soldier dying so painfully and slowly in the wagon that they flung him in. Talk about this at some length, and use lots of quotations that demonstrate the painful reality of the war.


Next paragraph


Then show how he finishes the poem, by asking people to realise that the famous statement is a lie there is nothing sweet or blessed about dying like this soldier has died. Therefore you have two poets writing within twenty five years of each other who give a very different view of war � and talk about how Owen criticises those who persuade the young to do their patriotic duty � it is not a game, and it is a disgrace to pretend that it is.





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