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How was the Earth formed? There have been many different theories and ideas of how the Earth came to be. One is the Big Bang Theory. This theory states that the universe started with a giant explosion, the Big Bang. This explosion was extremely hot and when it cooled enough atoms were created to form mass. For years the scientific world has wrestled with this question. Because of the extensive tests, and logical theories, I believe the Big Bang Theory to be the answer to the question.


Many tests have been done throughout time to prove this intangible theory, the Big Bang. Albert Einstein’s equations said that the universe must be expanding or contracting. This all came together when isotropy and homogeneity came into the picture. Homogeneity is evidence that from place to place the average density of matter does not vary. Isotropy says that the direction in space one looks does not change what they see. According to Einstein’s equations the distribution of matter in the universe will remain homogeneous. Concluding that space itself expands or contracts. The distribution between two points would be increasing the faster they would move apart. That would only be if it were expanding (Compton’s Encyclopedia 1). I think that Einstein’s equations were great evidence toward the Big Bang but much more was to come. Scientists believed that as the earth cooled it expanded. Protons began to form after about one second. The isotope of hydrogen was formed in what they call the “first three minutes.” Hydrogen atoms only absorb and emit certain wavelengths. Some wavelengths had been interfering with the free electrons. Today, we can detect free radiation from that change billions of years ago. After cooling cosmic background radiation was formed and first detected in 165. COBE, the Cosmic Background Explorer spacecraft mapped the cosmic background radiation. The distribution of this was matched to the matter that emits radiation because of its temperature. This was predicated for the Big Bang (Microsoft Encarta & ). Going back to the “first three minutes”, other elements such as helium, deuterium, and lithium were formed. They have been observed in abundance by many scientists (The Big Bang Theory 1). All of these tests have helped prove that the Big Bang started it all.


Theories pertaining to the Big Bang have been discovered by a plethora of scientists. In 105, Einstein published his special theory of relativity. Before space and time were thought to have nothing to do with each other. This theory showed that they are related and should be together so it was called space-time. Albert published his general theory of relativity in 116. This related space-time to the distribution of matter in the universe (Compton’s Encyclopedia 1). His equations said that if the universe’s density of matter were equal to certain critical value then it would continue expanding and become slower and eventually stop. If the universes average density is below this certain critical value it will expand forever. Bit if it is above this value then there will be a reversal of the Big Bang called the “Big Crunch”. Now, it is twenty times smaller which states that the universe is open (Compton’s Encyclopedia ). These theories seem pretty solid and the evidence that the universe is open is very strong. Just think, though, what if the universe was closed or what if there was a “Big Crunch”? A man named Alexander Friedmann came up with some solutions for Einstein’s equations, which gave some framework on the Big Bang Theory. In the 140’s George Gamow found out a theory that matched Friedmann’s. He said the universe expanded from a hot, dense state (Microsoft Encarta 1). These theories that started with Albert Einstein gave scientists today a great start.


Edwin Hubble discovered another type of theory. He discovered that the light of distant galaxies is universally shifted. Where did it shift? Well, it shifted to the red end of the spectrum. This means that the galaxies are moving away from each other. He found that the further apart they were the faster they moved (Microsoft Encarta 1). This change, this shift in light was called Redshift. This helps to indicate an object’s motion. Scientists have used redshifts to measure velocities of distant galaxies. Velocities of other galaxies are important because that is how they determine if the university is changing. Also it helps predict its distant future. The redshift only occurs if an object is moving (Redshift 1). Hubble also came up with an equation to see if the universe is open or closed. V=Hr is the equation. It expresses the velocity of the expansion. You need this equation because the decrease in expansion rate tells if the universe is open or closed. This is what each variable stands for V= velocity, r = distance between two points, H = Hubble’s constant. Hubble’s constant relates velocity and distance. Hubble’s constant decreases faster if the universe is closed. To measure H, you have to measure the brightness of distant galaxies. This is misleading, because the distance that needs to measured breaks down (Compton’s Encyclopedia ). This may not be the best way to find if the universe is open or closed, but there are other ways. One such way is measuring the age of the universe, which is the time since the Big Bang. It is called Hubble time. This is expressed as 1/H. If the actual age of the universe is less than / of Hubble time, then it’s closed (Compton’s Encyclopedia ). There are many theories behind the Big Bang Theory that explain how the universe got here.


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In the 10’s a certain magazine held a contest for a better name or euphemism for this theory, but the “Big Bang” stuck. This giant explosion is said to be the reason for the universe forming. Although there are other thoughts and ideas of how the Earth came to be, the Big Bang Theory seems to make the most scientific sense. Its many proven tests and reasonable theories makes this theory the most logical.





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